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Pictured* as^they *iriet; yesterday in Rich-" 
-™.?TMlj :■ jy^ J ot n dsicuss; their fight against 
ihtegratealschqols, are (from^Ief t)*Goy7 J. P* 
«3^^feah of: MississjiH^t^^J^ar^ Orif^ 

Interiiositiou Support ™ . 

J^dtip(?oMrnQrs to As] 
iMegrMon Protests 

* .' , Associated Press- 

fin of Georgia;' Gov. George; Bell Tiihmer* 
man Jr. of;' South Carolina;; and G ov; 
Thomas B; Stanley- of Virginia, f hey Agreed 
to take unified 'action on Interposition; 

, r. . *■ Ji'seeJfs. Jt, proposes Vcofistlttte 

tibnKt amendment, that would. 

forbift facial' segregation lin 

schoius; - '. . 1 ' 

Intfeojsiti'qm proponents- Jin 


By Robert' E^Bafceb 

^^ICHMONDir/Ya.,; Jan. 24 
The- Governors- ot four south- 

envstatestoda^ said* they w<&id4 «©#5ion, but said he did not mi? 



asfc, their State 'legislature^, to 
adopt? resolutions of- "interposi- 
• tion or .protest'* '/against the 
United Slates .Supreme * Court's 
desegregation decision. 

In. .a jcijrit statement,, issued 
aftefc a day-lbng; ; closed session 
at the- capitfat here,- the igoveh- 
nors .declared- the. states- have 
hot % delegated 'to the Federal 
Government the poorer to * pro- 
hibit racial segregation in" pub- 
lic schools. ^ 
recommend, that their" State 

Ther said they would also 

, •.Gall on Congress to- act to 
"protect . the. states"' against 
"present and future encroach- 
ment by the- central Govern- 

1 * '• -Enact; legislation to'protect 
state sovereignty and "the 
rights Qf its/people.'? 
. The' brief, 200-word' statement 
was read; by Gov.' George Bell 
Timmermah, o£ South Carolina. 
It, was unanimously agreed up- 
on "by. Governors * Marvin, Grif- 
fith, of Georgia, -Ji P: CJoleman, 
of Mississippi and Thomas B. 
Stanley, of Virginia*. ;$hey rep- 
te^ei iiM sout her&^tate^frsre 
f®sSEf||^o^S§.a sessio ( 

Gov., Luther' H. Hodges^Tof 
North Carolina attended jlhe 

ticipate jn the f ormulatiori$ of 
the statement, since the North 
Carolina legislature is not in 
session arid he was attending 
only as an observer. He said the 
statement gives "expression 7 to 
the position *of the South" afc^ 
will be given serious Considera- 
tion in North Carolina. 
" 'The statement left wide -open 
the question of how far each 
state would go with resolutions' 
of interposition or protest. In- 
terposition, is. a.historic doctrine 
challenging the authority of 
the U..JSJ+ Supreme Court, in 
fmaking/its desegregation dlci- 
siori.. " . | 

Interposition -is a maneuver 
■fey-**** South designed to attain 
the opposite and its ostensibly 

Mr. Tolson 

Mr* Boardman 
Mr. Nichols _ 
Mr. Belmont — 

Mr. Harbo 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons 
!r, Rosen /^ 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoo - 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman 



the south expect the ameHd- 
jnent^ould' : fairta secure- the 
approval; o£the^3JS/ sta(es *neeii r 
edi* The' effect of this/ in- their 
; view,; would ' be- • to affirm, jhat 
''segregation* as- t :eons^itufi&fialv 
ithereby invalidating, the', Su- 
preme Court decision ioKdiseg? 
fegationi > " ''" 

Going into the.; session. Grif- 
fin said he "iavbred , a ."very 
strong., resolution, .of, iriteijjposi- 
tiori," interpreted, as meaning » 

The 'Would * support a*mel isure j 
declaring the Supreme ffbur£ 
decision null and void'.. In this 
l^e^the State would declare 
_;s. intentions to; maintain, segrer 
gated schools until the United 
States Cbristitutioh was amehd^ 
ed to, specifically prohibitthem* 
But Mississippi's- Coleman* 
going into the meeting, said hp 
opposed; nullification.. Tfe Gtov* 
trior's v statement ; 'used*' the 
words* "resolution of .interposi- 
tion ! or. protest uri appropriate 
languagey thus, leaving the. 
question d£ how, strong) a pro- 
test -should, "be up'tb^the ino* 
victual states. ■' '" '- ' ' •- ■ 
Virginia :\ has, tfrree', resolur 
tions of: interpositipn, already 
introduces! in its; .GeneraL As : 
"sembly, brie* wouldt nullify the 
Supreme, Court decision; a sec- 
ond woul# : expressly state it ,.i$ 
not a nullification resolution^ 
See GOVE^tfrc^g. 13, Col. ft 

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etiient; Disappoints* k 

{• • * ,* ■"" j * " *lt 

gtegatibnistsi,/ / ]t 

( iNA3Hyin,LE^ :Tehh.; j a J $ 
24 W— GoVi Frank: Clement 
told a -group of; segregation-' 
ists he wili ; hot accede^ io? 
I their request for a* special 
* session of the Legislature t'S 
seety fa, ays to. block ihfegfav 
! tion; of! the J fades; in public 
Vschpdis.*/ \< : : , V t ;;'■:; • 
' " Scleral;. Jxuhdred ;; se^rega- 
tionMs. /convergecL. onv tAe\ 

mm. 2 i958 

Wash. Post and (f> / 


Wash, News 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald 

N. Y. Mirror . 
Daily Worker. 
The Worker - 
New Leader - 

Date t ~3 ^ " 5&> 


0-19 (7-8-55) 

Mr. Tolson 

Mr, Boardman 
Mr. Nichols _ 
Mr. Belmont _ 

Mr. Harbo 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons — 

Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoo 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman — 
Miss Gandy 


jO\ KRIS ORS— Fr. Pi 1 

tridi the -third lies somewhere 

Tti6 statement' marked the 
first tiih6,Gbverhdr Stanleyh&s 
taken a stand /on interposition 
or, prbtest/ s ! ** '\ * " 
Although '; the Groverriors 
Would/ qoniment; 1 ji6 '." further 
than ■ their jbjhfc statement 
their stand" evidently lfefftfls 
way open: • for, .enactment ■ q : 
plans 1 by ' individual states -S> 
deal 3vith E " .the; Supreme .CbuSt 
mandate, by l'egislationgflike' 
Virginians * • Gray - Commission 
program- to avoidenfbrceMnW' 
gratiph in :th^ public schools; - 
Thus, the t Governors'* aplicy 
indicated this f .course fo¥ the 
South:. (1); A toAfc range Slam 
by way of ' interposition cm pro- 
test, in !the; hope' bf^retalMaft 
segregated-schpols^by cbnstftu- 
tipnal, aniehdmehi and (2)' f6r, 
the 'immediate;, future^ enact- 
ment of legislation to: avoid 
enforced integration. 
■ Attending-. the meeting were 
tegal staffs • of ;the varibus 
states^and, from' Virginia, state 
Sen; Garland Gray of Waverly, 
Attorney- General; '£, Lindsay, 
Almond. Jr., arid' Gray Cbmmis ' 
sion Counsel *B&n4h& Mays 

fw " 1 

Wash. Post and 
Times Herald 

Wash. News 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald _ 

N. Y. Mirror 

Daily Worker — 

The Worker 

New Leader 


*M9 fl.1-22-55) 

B iteypdigitloii Suppo rt; 



By Robert JE. B^ker 

* SfoK ftetforfcr 

,>IGHMONJ5;-',Ya;/. JanV 24 
The f &pv£rnqrs/ Pit ,f our? Squth- 
'ernyst^t'es^paay^said^liey: would 

adopt;resoluU6ris, .of, "iritertfosiT 
Udh' or ,; protect" against fjie 
- United- :States^Sup.reiiie^0ourVs 
desegregation deei'sionV/ ,* * 

JH ,a joint statement^ issued 
after a* day-long, closed* session, 
afc the Capitol' here, the 1 gover- 
nors declare* the; sta'teV have 
i not delegated* *o :the* Federal 
Government the- pofyer tb pro 
hibit-HifabiaL segregation* iii pub 
lie schools. . . 

They said, they would: also 
recommend * that, their slate, 
legislatures: ' - . V 

*.' Call .on Congress W act to 
"protect 1 the stales", .against 
•present and future encroach- 
ment r by the- >ce/ntrai> Govern- 
ment." , *\. „ - ./ ' ' v 
, ►Enact legislation to. protect 
/$jt.atf:e\ sqyereightyv and>;' ;<t 'the 
'^ghts < ■'6f"xtsi t pebple?» , ' * '-'■ ' *V 
Tfi&fajief, 200-word Statement 
was/ read' by Gov.' Gedrge^Bell 
Tinimerirjan of Sputii Carolina'. 
It was' unanimously agreed*uj- 
,ori by Gpvernors Marvin' Grif- 
fin of Georgia,. J.; P: Coleman 
of Mississippi ahji. Thomas B, 
3tanley of Virginia^. The^rep 
resent^ southern -states where 
legislatures now are ifi session, 
GovY Luther H> Hodges" oi 
Nprtb Carolina- -attended', the 
session, but.said he^ did: hot pari 
ticipate in^^g^ojrmulatioh , of 
the statement, since tlie> Nortti 
C|rolip; Legislature, i& not* in 
seSsibn ajioYhe was^fc attending 
only as ah observervHe sai&the 
statement givesX "expression' to 
the position' of the South'* and 
will be giveit geriou s, consider a-- 
tioh iii North Carolina./ * , " 

The s.tateipeift left \wide\ open 
; the; question o£ how far' each 
: state would, go with resolutions 
J of interposition or protest In- 
terposition is a historic-doctrine 
challenging, the .authority- of 
fthe Oi ,S; Supreme Court in 
making its desegregation deci- 
sion.,, ; : ' 

Interposition is a- maneuver 
by the South designed: to attain 
th# .-opposite- end, it osterisiblyj 
-seeks. At proposes .a .ebqstitu^ 
tiqnal amendment, that,, would! 
forbid racial segregation irii 
.schools. - * . . s 

Interposition proponents 1 in< 
the. South expect the amende 
nient would fail- to* secure^the! 
approval of the 3& states need- 
Mj_The; effect of this, in their 



segregation $ iconstitutionalJ 
thereby; invalidating , the Su- 
preme\^urt,deci'sion for- desei- 
yegatioh.-;' v : , , \ '. " "; 

t 'Qqingcanta thV session-, 'drift 
fin) t said- "he. < favored a- "very 
strqn^ resolution' vi interpose 
t-ion^ interpreted^ as. meaning 
he ;wquld? support, a* .measure 
declaring the Supreme Court 
decision null and. void;', In; this 
case) • the; state Tvouicf declare 1 
itsvinten tioris to m aintain segre- 
.gatefr schpcfls until the- United; 
Statesv Constitution wa&<amend[- 
ed. to specifically prohibit, them? 

But Mississippi's^ Coleman 
going into the' meeting,, said M 
opposed ftullification. The ,Gov| 
erhqrV' statement used 



yj%* Nichols^ 

^Belmont .. tr 


Mohr A_^ 

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Tamm _ 


Winterrowd _ 
Tele. Room . 

Hollo man 



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wordsi «fresoiutiqn .of e ; interp6si? 
Hon; or^ptest . in appropriate 
language/*. ,;thu$ leaving the 
question of how' strong a pro- 
test should' be up to, the indir 
yidUaT, states, 

Virginia' * : has ; three resolu- 
tions "of interposition, already, 
intrpducqd in its- General-' As- 
se^bljv One .would nullify the ; 
Supreme* pourt d'ecisioh, a sec- 
ond' would; expressly sjate it is 
not *at nullification resolution; 
^See QOVERNORSOTfrl : 2^0lr4: 

"W"crsh. Post and - 
Times Herald 

Wash. News 

Wash. Star 

5 :;' 

N. Y, Herald — — 

N. Y. Mirror 

N. Y. D.qil^ News 

Daily Worker 

The Worlcer _ 

New Ledder 

-Yi Ut 

D ^ te m 2 5 me 



*""^S aMJ^»*J )' ) i l'uutJ ' ,l V l . *"' ■■ ' I ^1)) i \ » M B g2£2£ S2i\ 

and; the- third lies : somewhere | 

in between; % : « - 

* The'.stateiheht marked' :tne 

first time- Governor Stanley has 

taken a* stand on interposition 

or protest; ; .. > 

| .&lthough> u the- Governors 

(.would comment ? ,no> further 

than , their v " joint statement,' 

their stand evidently- left; the 

way open, for ' ^enactment? of 

plans by individual states to 

deal withther Supreme- Court 

mandate? by legislation— like 

Virginia's; Gray;< Commission 

programed ;avoitf enforced > ihte? 

gration, in the .public/ schools. 

Thus,, the Governors'' policy 
indicated", this course' ior the 
South:., (1) A. long; range plan, 
by r way of interposition or pro- 
test,, in the hope of retaining 
segregated schools by constitu-. 
tional; amendment and (2)'- for 
the immediate future, enacfe 
ment of legislation ta avoid 
erif 6r6ed integration, . * ■ • 
* Attending, the meeting were 
^Si staffs of the various; 
states; and, : fr^nt-Virginiai .State! 
Sen. Garland Gray of Waverly/ 
Attorney General J. ' L^dsayj 
Almond Jr.,. and Gray Commis-1 
sioh> Counsel* David. J; Ma^s f ; 
Stanley said last nxghA* " 
through an "aide,- that, Jie^doea 
not \ consider the Governors' 
statement jas interfering with 
the Gray' Commission program 
in Virginia^ 

He said. 'he. wished \6 t cqnf£r 
witfo State- Senator Harry Stu- 
art; of Russell\ County pir/Stfr 
a#*s interposition' proposal re}* 
cehtly introduced, with" a view, 
toward' possible, .amendment^ 
This' was taken as, ah, indica^ 
tiori^ that 'Stanley v watits* to 
inakev -certain, the- Stuart, iesbr 
lutioh^cbnt^ns^ng'hintpf nul- 
lification:; .,-.:;',• 

Meanwhile;. ' the.. Associated 
Pre'ss, reported that a 'joint. ses- 
sion; bf;tl;e^Georgia' Legislaturi 
cheered speeches' by Reps;/ Jonri 
Ji Mynt Jr. v of ' Griffith , and; 
James C; Davis of- Stone; Maui*; 
tairu, They recommended the 
ioctrine" 6t interposition; as al 
|Srea&sW£ hu"ilifyih£ejgg^|u- 
[ preme *C6urt/.decisioh?Tv s T^' I 

Reporters cluster around the, conference; 
table in Richmond yesterday as Gov;. George 
B. Timmerman* Jr.^ of South t Carolina reads 
a. statement that four Sotitnern Governors .. 
( ^aj^ajTeed.'tp/take^unified Taction on* in? 
tegrated, schools. The Governors are (from 

, Tfl ^ , Associated Press^ 

left) J t f. Coleman, of Mississippi, Marvin, 
Griffin of Georgia* Timmermanj IiUtherj 
Hodges of North. Carolina, who .attended 1 - as] 
aii observer, and Thomas B. Stanley of -Viif: 
gini'a; TKe< united action, 'of the, Governors^ ( ' 
will be on; the matter of interpositipm < * 



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3 */A .5 


.?;.*: * * 

7;;.fE.o ** 1-'j' j 

'*TJi'>Tl^Jjlj |L I i%f ,'' 

In C6nf^enc0 
" r (Ski- Seg>^ggti0ni 1 *■ 

UlCBUOm)y Jan: 25^, ,(£?)^ 
Governors of ' four Southern 
States have -agreed to askVthefc 
legislatures* to prbtest^-b'y **ln- 
terppsitibn'^the- United,' States 
Supreme ^Court's decision- thi£ 
outlawed, segregation lit public 
schools;. '".'.''. , " ?'>»r 
The decree of protest that 
would he- ihcbrporated'*in'*the' 
various: interposition resolutions' 
was leftr to the; individual States;- 
but. there were' indications three. 
States would > stop, short ■ of ";def y-v 
ing* the nigh* court, * "- - ; '■ 
1 Goy^ George Bell Timmerman;: 
|jr;, of South Carolina disclosed 
jthe stand' of the chie&'executiyek 
in ^statement yesterday that f olV 
lowed a six-hour conference on 
school segregation problems. ' " 
While none of the Governors 
would commit himself, immedi- 
ately to a specific program* there 
were- Indications Gov Tinune> 
man, Gov. : Thomas* B. Stanley 
of Virginia and Govi J. P ; Cole- 
man of Mississippi would* recom- 
mend' resolutions; thai do not' 
contain nullification— or out- 
right defiance; • } >""" ♦ ' 

Griffin for ^unification •] 

■ 'Of- those, present,, only Gov.' 
Marvin. Grifiifr of Georgia, wail 
outspokenly- in favor of "an- allH 
out nuUifying 'interposition re-1 
solution. , TAJsb' attending the! 
conference- was." Gov.' Luther] 
Hodges of North Carolina, who] 
sat in- as an observer but dial 
noj join in the declaration of 
policy- because his State's -legis- 
lature is not in session. 

Under the doctrine of inter- 
position, the, states- interpose 
their sovereignty in tha.face of 
a .Federal 1 action ihey consider 
beyond- the< constitutional au- 
thority pf the Federal Govfenw 
m^itft^tit ,1^ ' * fc i " wu j. i 

-' 1 







Mohr - 


Parsons f\ 

Rosen — r _ 

Tamm " **j ~" 



Tele. Room 




Wash, Post and 

Times Herald 

Wash. News -a <s 

Wash. Star JL "* £ 

N. Y. Herald 


N. Y. Mirror 

N. Y. Daily News 

Daily Worker 

The Worker _^ 

New Leader 

■Date JAN " 



gv%pulp> raise; a que^^y^ 
o4fested;powers;between the" 

3Jie; _ 

interposing States* and' the Su- 
preme; Co&t;^ Cori^ 
gresi andr-th&,. other 'States to 
settla'theVIssu^^it'he 1 ratifica,- 
.tion of &, constitutional amend- 
iri'eht v Nlayingr;the' Supreme Court 
hag : .tha';rigiii;te ,. outlaw school* 
segregatiomy.\, -v... :^y . y] , 
v Either/ :jSwo-th£r^s> of 'the iz. 
States !ox .two-thirdsibfXthe nie&S 
b.ers of 'both: houses; of \ Congress'' 
,wpul^ hayej ${i)rdpose:, sjuch^ifi) 
amehdmehk > 1$' thenVniust * 'bff 
approVedibyr^ntee-fourths 6f : tligf 
States. \ , • ''; t *'v 

Timmerman Statement 
A step further than interposi- 
tion is nullification— a theoryTof 
extrem e interposijibnists that* 
pending the" outcome of the pro- 
posed amendment,, the protested 
decision should^ tie declared null 
and void; . * ; , 

Gov. Timmerman's statement 
said" the Governors of the four 
Southern States, with Legislai 
tures now in regular session 
, declare: ' » 

"That the States- have "not, 
delegated to the Federal Gov- 
ernment or any agency thereof 
the power to prohibit the seg* 
regationof the races-jn the pub* 
lie schools and we/ therefore, 
shall recommend -to theiLeigsla- 
tures of :our "respective State* 
that, the* following - action be 

*'i., That- therS^bPkSbpted* a 
resolution.; of interposition;, or 
protest in' appropriate language, 
against the encroachment of -the" 
central Government upon the 
sovereignty of the several. States 
jandr their people. 
: '%' That^a; call be made tipon 
the' Congress *. of 'the United 
States to take, such action within 
the limits of its .cohsitutiohal 
authority as to protect the States 
and their people against present 
and future encroachment by the 
central Government, , "■' ; ■ 
"3; That each State exercise 
its right 'to enact, and: utilize 
such, other appropriate legal 
measures- as it may deem" adr 
v|saWe-td; i protecir'its sovereignty 
anBTBSTSghts-oir iirsttiffig" * 


^"0-19 (1.1-22-55) 

A jM. 

74^pveriiciFs to 

Special iothe'Herald tribune* 
RICHMOND, Va,, Jaii, 24'.4r- 
FouB;Southern. Governors agreed 
today to seejc action, in*, their 
own legislatures' Congress 
to "interpose" state sovereignty 
to block the Supreme Court's 

* decree against sch'opl segrega- 
tion. t , s 

The decision was announced 
by Gov. George Bell Timmerr 
man jr., of South Carolina^ fol- 
lowing six hours of conferences 
in the offices of: Virginians Gov. 
Thomas B. Stanley. ' Other par- 
ticipants were Govs. Marvin 

J Griffin, of Georgia, and J. P. 

(Coleman, of Mississippi. Gov, 

"Luther Hodges, of North* Caro- 
lina, attended as an* ''observer" 
because his Legislature is not 

•in session, but said today's ac- 
tion would be seriously consid : , 

;ered at the next North Carolina 

j legislative session; 

J Today's- conference ^as sum- 

'marized; in. the following state- 
ment read to reporters by Gov. 
Tiriimerman,, who acted, as 

chairman i 
"This conierence,.composedof 

the- Governors of the four South- 

ern^st^tfia^hose legislatures are 

in regular 'session, does declare: 

"That the- states have, not 
delegated to the Federal govern 
meht or any agehcf thereof -the 
power' to prohibit the segrega- 
tion of the races in the-public 
schools arid we; therefore, shall 
recommend to. the legislatures of 
our respectivestates that the fol 
lowing' action be taken: ." 

"1. That there be adopted' a 
resolution >of interposition' or 
protest in appropriate language 
against the- encroachment of the 
central government upon the 
sovereignty of the several states 
arid their people. 

"2. That a call' be made upon 
the Congress, of the TJnite&States 
to take such., actiqn- within the 
limits of its Constitutional au- 
thority as to protect "the, states 
and their people against present 
and future encroachment by. .the 
central' government^, . 

"3; .That each state exercise 
its right to enact and utilize such 
other appropriate legal measures 
as it may deem advisable to pi-ov 
tect its- sovereignty and the 
rights of its people." 

Govi Griffin told reporters, 
'Georgia means business" and 
indicated' that his* state would 
Continued en pageitCcolurfih 7 ] 

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Winterrowd _ 
Tele. Room . 



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Wash. Post and . 
Times Herald 

Wash. News 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald 


N. Y. Mirror 

N. Y. Daily News 

Daily Worker 

The Wqrker 

New Leader 


DateJAN 2 5 Wfo 




- (Cbniinue&from page one), 

take every possibles step, to pre- 
serve- segregation; . Gov; ■Tim-, 
merman declined to go beyond" 
his' statement' in' discussing: his 
position. .Govs. 'Stanley arid 
Coleman said', they did not con- 
strue^ihterpp'sition, to-mead. out- 
fight nullification* hi. the classic^ 
ante-bellum. Southern tradition, 

The\ Georgia- governor ex* 
pressed satisfaction with, tide 
statement because ;it left the 
way open- f pn' each state.*to take 
such, legislative "steps as it deems 
necessary^ ; " , * 

Thus- i ar*. the lead' on inter- 
position has been taken by Vir-. 
giriia, where- a resolution has:the 
General Assembly locked in de- 
bate. Proposed language ranges 
from a flat statement that the 
Supreme- C6,urt*s>ruling is illegal 
arid invalid to ; milder expires-, 
s|oris ; -of grptest/agairist its en- 
forcement. • j , ■• * ■ 

Tennessee 1 disagrees; 
Interpositibn^hasibeen defined 
as the right of orie-or more states 
to interpose etate action; to- pre* 
ivent ^within theii* own borders 
he* exerciser v bf Inderal powers, 

not granted by the Con^yjug^^ 
There . -have ' been efforSTTcb, 
achieve united- action;' by the; 
Governors, of all -thirteen; stated 
whe£e< segregation^ is required; 
Gov: iFranl^G. Clement, M fen?' 
nessee, rejected, yesterday a^xet*- 
quest- for\a special legislative, 
session to consider such action!'* 
..Qoy.. Griffin: said before trie, 
meeting that the group was- 
"fpr the\strongest possible .reso- 
lution of interpositiori^ 
; ' A reporter asked? if tfiis, iheanfc 
he felt- Georgia-should hold the 1 
Supreme Courts* school decree 
invalid unless- supported by a- 
constitutional ameridirierit. Gov,. 
Griffin replied only: * ' -We ixi 
Georgia believe' trie constitution^ 
arid' laws :of Georgia will* pre? - 

yau*''-;' ' " c " ■'*:.. ■• 
Today's meeting was£rganized ( 
by Gov;. Stanley after telephone 
conversations indicated interest 
in other states^ Nine Southern', 
governors met' in Richmond ta 
discuss i segregation in June f 
195,4-i-a month after ,, the Su- 
preme* Court's^ school decree-? 
but decided trie* matter was. too' 
complex for joint action.. Later, 
seveii Southern ' Governors 
pledged themselves to try ti 






Mississippi continues to lose .pop- 

i) ation t including' large numbersYof 
lofyred persons- who are mjgratftig 
o Inetropolitan^reas lured by Jhe 
en|pting;bait ot sojci.aI- equaji ty and 
ligher wagesv ! 

-Many state Negroes are moving 
o Chicago: Housing officials of. the 
Vindy -City have recently estimat--, 
sd that between; .5,006 and' 10,000' 
vegroes- ar£ arriving there every 
norithr ; • 

J.UST ,.HOW MANY Mississippi 
Negroes, are £mong that number 
anfipt be accurately detertliined 
it :preseht^but: it is safest to ^|ume 
hey' are^plentifuI.,.Thi§ new 'influx- 
-f color ea>people ifc posing a seri- 
us economic problem-, for Chicago. 

James, C. Downs, 'City Housirig 
Toordinatpri publicly admits that 
busing for Negroes is terrifically 
hort at' present and that more 
ousing projects? is a crying civic 
eed; li «" 

I the mjlitantf Chicago Defender,, a 
sading; Negro newspaper, est-ir 
tates there are how 650,000 colored 
arsons in, the city and one mjl- 
on invthe greater 'Chicago :area> 
this is ^about double, its Negro, 
ppulatioriUn i940;)' 
He predicts; that within,. ,a' few 
cars more than, a million Negroes 
fit 'be living; in Chicago— -or mbre 
*jiin any- Southern -statei ytter 
Ay ^politician's ■ toay^ welcdme 
^Jrccast' but many Chicagbans 

coin." , 

* Ha ting fled Dixie- to escape the 
'.'indignities.' 7 of- segregation,. Tte 
groes, .arriving: in Chicago: f. i n d. 
themselves' herded into -segregate 
areas* long since, abandoned by*< 
whites;" To; combat open* hostility 
td colored, newcomers; officials are 
urging "public education" -^ uri~ 
mindful that Chicagbans, already 
are" receiving, by painful 1 ' .day-to- 
day experiencei a 'liberal education 
in, racial matters;- 


s^e 7 Cols. L - & 
'25/56 • *r' 

'Srhy. A ob .over-joyed 
prospects . - ' 

. ■ THIS ENORMOUS 'influx; , of col- 
ored people? lias b6en -due^mostly 
tp. their recruitment as non-skilled* 
labors by industry and .partly be- 
cause of depressed farm, conditions 
in the South.- Mechanized; agricul- 
ture has steadily reduced Job op- 
portunities in Dixie, according to; 
competent- observers; 
* Chicago .has, a , special committee 
on community; Welfare set up , to, 
deal, with several phases of Negro 
.migration, including' employment 
and housing. Its function appears 
to be more political .than economic, 
^Promises, apparently are hot keep- 
ling pace with performances;- 

MAYOR DALEY, who has done 
considerable breast-beatin over 
conditions- in Mississippi, has is- 
sued a. statement again, pledging 
to maintain tew and orders and, to 
see that 1 Negro Civil Rights are 
duly. respected. This pompous pro- 
nouncement was- made to his spe- 
cial municipal subcommittee study- 
ing; "racial tensions." 

Part of" committee- .functions, it 
would appear, is, to -force, new Ne- 
gro population into, areas where it 
is; not wanted. Sad, but true, self- 
righteous Yankees who insist upon 
fall eqality for Negroes in the 
South- are hot willing to grant smi- 
lar frights ifr the North 

h T$E COMMITTEE on Jemploy- 
ment -and; community practices, 
•despite ,its. high sounding; titles 
seems 4 woefully short on .'operating 
funds. Mayor Daley, aparently, 
'finds it; equality than to provide it, 
The sum of $2,500; is- mentioned 
as the committee's budget for 
achieving miracles in brotherly 
love* This niggardly appropriation 
indicates rather Strongly that the 
committee- is mainly- window\dress- 
ingi, catenated to impress* ^gullible 
colored people;- 

committee on. rieighborhoold. educa- 
tion and housing reveal that little 
housing is available for rental or 
purchase by newly arrived colored 
people* Mortgage- lpans*i,o .them are, 
,slfi$ and entirely inadequate — a 

tion hi 'this' new influx^ of colored 
population; , ?there. is considerable 
dissatisfaction among Chicagpansv 
Typical of, widespread complaints 
is the .^following, editorial comment' 
in the South Deering Bulletin,; com- 
munity- newspaper- of an; all-white' 
neighborhood, arid we -quote: . ' 

*'Thfe Negro' wants to. be: classed 
as, an equal Well,; let him l?ef'treafc 
6d\ as Such' but why ask for charity,, 
why fight for .public, housing* '\vhy- 
d6mand' something he hasn't 
earned?; Chicago is being ;takeri 
over by Negroes from the Sdjutiv. 
. ;..Lafter colored- people takeover 
a Neighborhood here; it soon* be- 
comes, a slum- area.*' ./ j 

rCD I t| ^Q^fijft^-^ecoming example ,pM& 
I" LD J. O W*>chmination f iin "The Land of Lin- 

^y -< j v j. 

l^fFEB 1 r \ Vm 



Mr. Tolson__ 
Mr. Nichols^ 

Mr* BoardnyCh 
Mr. Bclmor* i 
Mr. Masor 

Mr* Mohr 

Mr. Parsons.. 
Mr. Ruscn — 
Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Ncase 

Mr. Winterrowd- 
Tele* Room... 

Mr. Holloman 

Miss Gandy *_ 






SL ^'^.,__ ia...,^"" 

j,* w .^ .- . . : „ 


fX*>y~- .»*s ^7 * r »-r* 

0-19 (7-8-55) 



We've Done too. Much Talking' 




Virginia's Gov. Stanley/iett, greets Georgia's Gov." Griffta!' ~ 

RICHMOND,- Jan, 24 (U?) — Five Southern governors- todav 

"L?Si\^^^^ segregation,, fl 

be worth anything," Gov. J. k Cole- 

SJfr 11 , ^Mississippi, told newsmen; 
We've done too much talking and 

not enough acting." 

,^The meeting was called by Gov. 

■Thomas B, Stanley of Virginia, arid 

includes Govs. Marvin Griffin of 

Georgia, George Bell Timmermam 

Jr. of South. Carolina, and Luther 

Hodges, of North Carolina. 
•Gov; Stanley summed up the idea- 

of the meeting this way;* "If our 

states can do something similar it 

wqujd carry more, weight and com- 
mand more attention than, if each- 
state, takes a different wayi"' 

Before the conference,. Gov. Grif- 
fin pf Georgia said- he would. like. to 
see. the- governors * recommend; Va 

'strong interposition" plan -to- the 
legislatures; - * ; 

; An "interposition? resolution was. 
recent)4^H*ro€uced in ttitf Virginia 
Senate. It declares Virginia has a 

sovereign" right to maintain; seg- 
regation and that the Su:pr-em^ 
Court's decision-integrating schools! 
was illegal. ' '■ ■- , _ r\ 

It says the racial question should 
be decided by a U..S; constitutional 
convention, and thaf until there is 
such a cohveiitioir Virginia will do 
"everything legal"! to delay integral 
tipn. ' ; /*/',••*' *" 

Yesterday Delegate Robert White- 
head, of Nelson. County, introduced* 
£ similar resolution in the House 61 
Delegates. It leaver out the blunt- 
statement that ,the Supreme- Court 
decision was* illegal; but calls, for a' : 
: Federal constitutional convention, " J 

Mr. Tolson 

Mr. Boardman 
Mr. Nichols _ 
Mr. Belmont — 

Mr. Harbo 

Mr, Mohr 


Rosen. 1 


Mr. Sizoo 

Mr, Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman 
Miss Gan)3 

Jt A 


126 .FEB 16 1356 

Wash. Post and 
Times Herald 

Wash. News \ 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald _ 

N. Y. Mirror 

Daily Worker — 

The Worker 

New Leader - — 

Others: in- the state have thought 
that the resolution -should be strong-* 
er than either- of: tiae^and shouldtorirv J- 
state flat defiance byW»SSa to thf^n - 
Supreme Court's, ruling. : , RE & ** 

~ — ' . = - ' — -^om ro? 


'», - 


4t *"} 



■0-19 (7-8-55) 



: ;STQGKFPN> Calv Jm. S&-M 
Fhe . slender Negro; said, 4l They 
^pjilpitlt c;$ph niy.velexaris* '.clieck. 
£hey je^ft^ cancelled' /out my ac-: 
^ouht' 'afc.tke&aiifc— iol& ! me tty"dravv: 
W mb^y oufcf ': ' \ 
l.J&tfc was last &ugtistlin Yazoo 
City, M&<b i3o^ula;tiom : S[;?40. 
[ Today Earnest Unttle, a- totally 
pjsdbfed war veteran, iris wife and 
six ehddren are endeavering to 
stari life- anew hx Stockton., 
; They are* refugees — refo ^s 
from (Be new form o£ &i\ ^ ** 
tor .that is sweeping ; d n > x 0I 

the? South v , v *' . T c«. -t 

Th* lttiU>< \\& were^ior tow 

oddffThat bro^St another: Jcind 
f terror to many residents, here, 
*e refugees from, the economic 
^fare-waged against Negroes m- 
he; South; 'by the* newly4prmecl: 
Citizens Souricik.; -.. . ' ' ' j 

J Terror bega^M the Ljales/on 
til?. 2S-/ 3.9*; >*<afc the; Yazopj 
3iiy Slerald ^B the, <entirej Iron* 
>ace of its second section tp^the 
Citizens Council o£ Ya^oo -City,. 
Uiich printed- iri very large,, vertf 
x>ld type the names- and - aci- 
kes'ses of 58' Yazoo <3ity Negroes 
jvhbsft' signature^afi^ared avtr* 
petition: urging tlie-lopa.L school 
bpar<J ,. ,. i :to< take, immediate steps 
to/ reorganize ; ffi<* -public schools. 
Under your- .jurisdiction, tin •, ; a,.non- 
dtoimirtabiy/basis/' -A, 

r .One of the names- \yas that pt 
&Irs. Earnest Little, 213 Lamar J. 

'Ave* , ■* . . t 

: That was the beginning ot 

•Bigbtmare for 'the £4ttles ; 

i ' f In> every store they had that, 

list, Hist thing they ask you; 

Hvikt's your name?';, t 

\Little received;; a letter itotfcw 
rl\iu»i:om wheerJieJhad' 


cou^/musf be';pai3: up: ii t o ( 
that^ie could no Jong 
there. „ ",-'... i 

Other ^merchants notified ,him be' 
no logger ;(ias credit. t An ariony- 
mous I telephone caliMtojd Mint ^p: 
.get o jt;of town iii- eight hours, £n ; 
anibulince^drpve iipih:irpnt of the. 
Little | liprrie; The .phone; xarigj 
again. IT the Littles didnfjr leave* 
on their ;<own theyS; leave in tliej 
aihjbularicev • " . ' * i 
* The* editor of the Yazoo; City- 
Herald wrote , in* his vfronfr p&gfy 
column- entitled, 'RandpmCThougfits : ; 
by, the fidltbr;. ' ' « -; \ 
. " "jfere's advice t'p; the few te^ 
maining Klegroes. wno lia^e* nPtyet 
askedt *he school board to, remove; 
their fiatnesr' from trie petitions-dp.; 

it*6AyP'- ; T ' ; - ■ . 

He wentou tb'Say it' f woula not- 
be unrcasooaDlc" for white citizens; 
"'to jplace all those, who db>hpt ask. 
to have.- their, signatures disrey 
gavded dm the. same category ^wffl t 
f)r;, 4 1 ** H* MPpoy,; leader MAH 
' NationalvAssPciation for 'the^cbr 
- vimclmetit Pf Colored People" 

Mrs; * Littler - still, apprehensive, 

says she ilidn't sign; the petition,.] 

.iter name is. listed among, those 

> formalin .repudiating- the petition; 

. But that flicln't stop th,e :fe^q&', r 

Little .suffers frpm^ tubercidpsis,,. 

' disCPverecl wheri^ : he was- -® ffie 

Amy. ■■ , , • ,„-, 

JVM' kittle had' piily beeir bprhe 
fioia the' hospital ior a short time". 
She had undergone air aMomihal 
operation.; She said: the ' dipctor 
had talked, to her about what she 
called "the iierve* sickness"^* Now., 
she said; she "had something real 
to worry* about." 

The Littles ;decfded to; leave 
They could not leave ^t^ut' 
)iicv^. .Xlie^eiLorjorjuc. 5™ 

^hreatyied to mafe that/mpos^ 
sibie../ \ ."- : / 

Firfoljy; -Little -Avas able to. get 
a- -white; ;fiirqiture dealer to give 
bml $iQP ; for; art ,e]ectric>feingera> 
tor. vyorih inucl^mpre. Eveathe'n, 
he liad to: get'the furniture, dealer 
jo go to. the bank \vitli hiin before 
tlie tank would cash. t%' checfc.* 
The 1 same bank had previously re- 
fused to; casb Jus check froii) ;the 
Veteran^ iVdrhiniktration and had 
asked him- $q close his*, account. 
f ^he -tattles left /town .secretly* 
;in' a. day? .cpacL .bpbnd: for Stock* 
ton;- AVhere Ht|le has it brptlier. 
' "The man (ticket agetif m Jack- 
jon wantedps to go -by the South-! 
ern; roiitev X told 'him: J wanted to 
ciosi ;that , Mason*Dixje } ihe # ; I £o t 
, the/ darkest* seat L could iihd- 
l 'hid -nok get up- .and walk 
arqund until • we had crossed that" 
line," : '. ,; 

Mr. Tolson 

Mr. Boardman 
Mr. Nichols — 
Mr. Belmont - 

Mr. Harbo . 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons _ 

'""-^nsB^u^Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoo 

Mr. Winterrowc 
Tele. Room _ 
Mr. Holloman . 
Miss Gandy _ 

* ( Each stationH 
Jadksoik "seemed 
jLittle says. *■ 

But their >fea: 
thfm; ■ 3 . , 

They vtfere h^ 
twQ^dnd a half # 
tie; fold anyorie^ 
why ;he left Mis 
problems jie feft 

He had;to repc! 
Administration. I 
merit, and it woi. 
that xirged hiiri 
NAtoSjfe J Even ,i 
ried k-letfej:: fei 
had'bepn afraid ] 

How the- $ ! At, 
ing- to raise fund 
irly -Or- its feet 'h« 
should be sehti 
brarick in Stock 
liam:Hi Boydeii,i 
sort 'St, Stockton; 



mot nzco&nF& 
m ^i 27 A5§ 

Wash. Post anc 
Times Herald 

Wash. News 

Wash, Star 

N. Y. Herald _ 

N. Y. Mirror 

Daily Worker — 

The Worker 

New Leader 






/Jtm^ Vj 



Mr, Belmont 

Mr. Mason 

5£r. Mohr 

Mr* Nease 

Mr. Wintertowd — 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman , 

Miss Gandy 


, rep. john bell williams (d-miss.) told the house "no state in the 
History of this nation has suffered sU'Ch unwarranted, libelous and 
slanderous attacks as has the state of m ississip°i. 

"the- latest shot to be fired in this libel campaign" williams said. 


• IN 1954. WILL] 




1/23--W0533 13 


12G.FEB 10 1358 



0-19 (7-8-55) 




DSamOJ^i ;.**' We received a 
'leaflet fromVa-J/AW local in Cali- 
fornia, 230; which,, We think con- 
tains one of the most excellenrideas 
■foe- strehgthenihg, -Negri* - white 
unity, unify of the workers, with tlje 
, tattling^egra'-people-oftiie South 
id their fight for freedom; , : 

Here is, the- leaflet just as we got 
it: " - 

• *GJVEfc\ > . 

WHJENfr -' ^ : 

Jan; 9, 1956>. ta Jan 
13, 1958. ; 

BT WHOM? ' ' 

Officers, members or 

Local 230; XJAW, and 

* _ thei* friends. 

FOB WHOM? ^ " 

Th£, oppressed' a Negr$ 

people in the State of 


WHElSfcF" - - 

Local 230 Hall at 5150 
East: Gage Ave. At 
Chrysler plant. gates* 
Eastern Aye. and Slau- 
son Ave, entrance* 

Mr, Tolson _. 
Mr. Boardman 
Mr. Nichols __ 
Mr. Belmont — 

Mr. Harbo 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons _ 

Mr, Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoo 

Mr, Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman „ 
Miss Gandy 

6 A~ /V\ i£s t S$ /t? ' 




Td; heip""alleviate the 
economic pressure ifrfc 
posed upon tliese 'Ne- 
groes in Mississippi 
who have darect to d£ty 
the/ "White* Citizens 
Cbuncils.^This "White 
Citizens Councils' 
came into being, ^ tf 
result of the Supr ^ 
Court's ruling agaii^ 
segregation* hi pubh 

/OS- 3V- s ? - 


,138 .4t,. 


• }0 




S- \V 

Wash. Post and 

Times Herald 

Wash. News 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald 


N. Y. Mirror 

Daily Worker _*. 

The Worker / fc, 
New Leader 







Slaridn-Ledger WashingfeJ 

1 WAfeiNQTON; ?-. A, Norths 
ern Negro newspaper publish- 
er has- cpmeHo; -the defense of, 
; Mississippi^ ahd a South' Car^ 
'oliria congressman has includ- 
ed his remarks in the Congress 
, siohal* 4irectoty4. , ^* '- \ 
; Rep: Mendel Rivers, CD :i S, 
C:) jnserfedUn* article-.writteh 
,bx Davis Lee, publisher, of the 
mmvk t -N;_J;y. Teleg£a% ij' 
afe directory Tuesday;' - ll 1 
In: doing so it -Rivers', com- 1 
ieri£e,d;. that' .the, article. isf. Jn 
hswer to; that appearing- in 
.oqK Makazirie; "written* 'by 
/illiam, Bradford: Huiej who 
:ied"*tqi libel arid' slander the 
dmirais- of the United States 
favy -be'cause he could not get 
ertahr cetera) 
i hi?, book, The Case Against 
ie i Admirals;, during the; tirhe- 
e was- a, naval' officer-. 
I'The* article iri c[uestio|i* ap> 

■I' - ;.• \ ;... ■-•§,- .j 

3Jlars in -Look Magazine of this. 
Tionthiii which* this rrian; vili- 
led; slandered/ libelee^, with 
inmitig'ated vituperation the 
food' name: of -the 'state of; Mjsr 
issippiV the peopled MiSsisr 
.Ippli andj hel'd? put to> the' :na-> 
ion," that the estate, of Missis-; 
Ippi is one. of the; worst places 
n .earth."' 

The South. 'Carolinians saicp 
prther;, '",1 wahfc you- to' rea& 


sip^ arid sperifc seven; 

there;; what ,he: found* 

.What' ,-he published in 

newspaper north of -the. Mason, 
and IJikon- line. ^ ' * 

- VJt .Is; a tragedy when 'the 
good name pi a state is- held! 
uj> for dramatic; ^purposes)- -to , 
ridicule, and' to scorn- at* the : 
hands, of these' headline seekr 

„ , spending, .^weekfrlh. 
.the state; touring its* 82' coSti^: 
ties;^ meeting and talking with! - 
Negr<> ' and/ white; citizens: 6f 
every; walk of .life, X am cori^ 
winced that Mississippi' .is' rib- * 
'Ayorse 'jihafi-ariy: other State 1 ; in', 
-the Union, and what has: hap- 
pened there could :liappei : * JaV 
any of- the 43 states'- .with* stiff k- 
cieh^proyocative agitatiofi,, and-, 
tha^thedeceri^ -citizens- deplbfo , 



ers* such,:as. the one- that ap* m,«v^ ub w^m.uiuzensae 
■p^arsin^LooIr Magazine; £ waritrwlenceV * '<' ' ,\ t - .K 

J--' Teleera* "la T"f 1° >T ^ thi *' a?fci f^ wHfc: I ^ ^ Ho * Mississippi! w^s- nj> 
£* Te3 ?S2$L^^p bv^this; manrv|p^adl : ^ii^ „. .»* .«> * * 

nothing to' gain in- .writing the. i xcoounneairrom pa*« one) 

arHcJe;" * 

The- inserted' article' follows r 

i (By Davis- Lee, Publisher): 

*'Tn rof>(*r\h uronlrc fho onfir 

|at a, colored;, manr.haOo? 
vwho. went down-to^ Mife 

1 ^SON, MlSSf 
\1 Cols. 

5 n i'ife^ th of P^Paganda. mater- 
ial- 'designed to stimulate interest 
in any alleged righteous cause, 
nor was X sent by any publica- 
tion with instructions to dramatize 
the slightest incident. I went in 
search of the truth. I didn't go in 
search of the worst that I, could 

__ r __ , _ find m the State; I erideavnrprffn I 

. 'In recent weeks the. entire* find the good. en - ayored l0 
world; has* been led. to believe: * «M a f nra iT„ * w f . ,. 
that the! million' Negro ^ tCti ^^^^^» T i be 
zehs* of MislissinDi are in con- • cnu ? 1 ? ed ' b " fc X dont care * ^st 

deprived of' eyery right aj first man I met was the able head 

American- citizens. - - , • {°f tJ ?e chamber of commerce: He 

"Th^hiurder of the Reved*fS ten ^ > : cordiaI welcome r arid 

ehd^eorgexee otBelzohi, m^^ ^v^J^' ^^ 

-TP^i-i^f Trnn, i-> . ./1 ' w a«tea; 1 have never met' a mari 

Emmett Till kidnap murder more gracious and considerate 

and other similar tragedie ^ v wf *" ^^erate. 

have given! numerous &tor&^ a .S?| 

reportsihe appearance of ■befaM^N-J^^W to ^ s ' wi *i 

true, And'thole,who have rieJSanv SS^SS ^tions There; are 

er -feeenUo Mississippi, froK^ 

what they rcad t lna&raily Ernest Lmt^^K 01 th ? 

lude that it is ^e.WorstVgcg£ h ° meS are owne ^ ^ Nei 

eartH '* " " % ^Jvisited-allof the coastal towns 

■ and ■ cities and, found , no - racial ! ten- 
sions. In every ' community an! hon- 
est effort $ afopt to, give: the: -Ne- 
: ^roes^ equal schools 
''When I 


f n~c 

i ■:-.— - arrived^ in Jackson, If 

( ^c i°^ e Gov ' Hu ^ h Wliite, who 
was glad to see me and talked .at 
some- length about the state's ef-| 
( forts toward .improving the eco-' 
,npnuc and- educational' statue of I 
{IhMJeQro citizens. «-S^ 

"Before leaving Jackson, I con-l 


S£A.tLM£0„..„. , 

...J.\JJCcD __ 
. .. i-iict). 





126,F£B 14 956 

5 ■ ' 




ferret with officials of" the State 
department of educationYand le|ai- 
ecffttiat the State "is* spending obri- 
sijlerably more money for Negro 
education thaii it is spending for 
white* At' Lejahd, I was- told? the 
State had spent $1 million- for a 
Negro elementary and high school. 

"Because, of the-, wide publicity 
given, the .citizens* council; I de- 
cided to meet with the, heads- and 
find out first, hand the- purpose -of 
the organization, its objectives and 
the type of people who head it/ 

u % drove; to Winona where Imet 
Mr;. Robert B. Patterson, the", sec- 
retary^ I spent .some 3 hours; with 
him,. He }s> a- native of Mississippi, 
young, energetic;, arid believes/that 
our Creator intended that there 
should' be a separation of faces. 

"Mr; Patterson is ah intelligent; 
fairrmnded Southerner who doesh^ 
believe that, integration; offers a 
solution' to our' racial problem. And 
his opinion and convictions- are 
blsed oh a : lifetime with* Negroes. 
,; "He operates a plantation at 
Iiidiafibla where, he has* some 
Negro families: He travels' exten- 
' sively an*, -leaves His wife anS 
daughters in the'; care of his. Negro 
he|pT .. ;; /• ' |. 

J -In, one sentence, Mr. Patterson) 
iioeferring; to: the * fact_ thai: Kg 
Nefcrges cared for his family,, feve 
m^the southern, view, the Soitk 
f#ng,. in. a nutshell. - T 

<\ 'When, I am, away/ he- said- 'I 
know that my : Negroes- will- not 

a ^SS"* 1 * happen to. my wife 
and children jn fact, they are my 
Children, too.* ' v 

"It is this- feeling of' parenthood, 
orpaternahsm that people outside 
^.Soutfiv don't understand. 


Southern; white- people do; regard 
their Negro employes as<their chil- 
dren;, their responsibility. 

^'This fact- was evident every- 
where that I' went.. White- people in 
Mississippi- love, and" respect their 
Negro employes,- and they resent 
outsiders, who interfere 1 with' local 
customs. " " , ' . 

■ "To further illustrate the work- 
ings of paternalism, I visited 
Drew,, a small town not far from 
M JW * met a plahtatidn "owner, 
who h a d iso families: on his spread. 
< fSW e . ° f the se Negtoes^had been 
on that plantation all oftheir lives. 
Theowner;is,aMr. Smith, an. ed- 
ucated, cultured man. He ; loves his 
Negroes' as -if they: were his own 
children; ', , * V 

''Recently he "missed 35 'tons of 
tertilizer. A private detective was 
called, m; In short order' the ferti- 
?u zer ?S Seated in Mound, Bayou; 
he all -Negro town; .The fence who 
bought -the- stuff agreed to pay 

iST^ ? ? Purges were made; 

Shortly thereafter Mr; Smffii 

?^L s ^ v?raI bM ^ of cotfo^The 
delScWe was. called in^again 
and given a retainer of $100 to- lo- 
cate the cotton, the next day tthe 
\ detective. called arid informed Mri 
jSmiththat the bales' of cotton had 
[been found in -Mound Bayou. The 
J detective informed the* plantation 
owner that one' of- his Negro em- 
ployes had: sold -the cotton; . : 

"Mr; Smith sent for the alleged 
thief, a young man in his^ twenties 
who had been born arid' reared* on 
the place. He. readily admitted tak- 
ing the cotton.^ The sheriff was 
summoned and: the young man ar- 
rested and: jailed: : ^ 
v"A few days, later,, at. the trial', 
the young;man-.was fined:$200; with 
the alternative of a jail sentence 
if he;- could hot ra'ise^ the -> money. 
Mr; Smith, walked- forward, ' paid 
the fine and took', the young man 
back to* the plantation. 

Since the Emmett till tragedy, 
I have read exaggerated ' reports 
by; Negro-reporter^ that they had 
to. disguise themselves' in dilapidat- 
ed; cars- in. Mississippi. I traveled 
the entire\stat'e> tyas' well ,dres$ed 
and rode in; a late model cons 
vertible. ^ -, ■ s j 

"I was- not even stopped and askj my driver's license durj 
irig the- entire' trip.. I went on dozJ 
ens- of plantations, and talked with 
hundreds of Negroes, and not one- 
planter questioned , m^| about myj 
beilng there;" 



0-19 (11-22-55) 











^ I 

t MEMPHIS, Jan., 19 (#)— J. Ed- 
gar-Hoover, director of' the Fed- 

,/ eral Bureau a of Investigation, 

r has sharply criticized .a Negro 

i! leader who 

T "says * the FBI 

'; doesn't 'try very 

>>-hard when. 

■? probing a ra- 
cial killing. 

9 , In a letter to 
Dr. T. r..'m. 

> Howard o.f 
Mound Bayou, 

j Miss*, Hoover. 

isaid Howard 

' should either 

■'give evidence, 
or retract his "intemperate and 

' baseless charges:" 

**'I do not propose to permit 

\ false charges made against this 
Btfreaii to go unchallenged*," 

' said the letter, made public last 
nigjiii' by FBI '.regional head 


quarters here. 
Reply Promised 

Reached in Los Angeles, How- 
ard told the Memphis Commer- 
cial Appearhis statements were 
"based on reports brought to 
me by- responsible Negroes in 
the^ various 'sections of Missis- 
sippi." He said, he would make 
a more extensive statement aft- 
er he received and studied the 

» v Howard is president of the 
■Mississippi Regional Council of 
Negro Leadership and the Na- 
tional Medical Association. 
; The FBI Director's letter 
cited; }n\ particular" Howard's 
publicized, statement that:' K , 
' /'We-, must find out why 
Spu^rhinvestigators of the 
FBrcWr^'eerii;'to solve ^a crime 
where a Negro is" iilvolved."' 

Hoover said a/full; arid impar- 

tial investigation, to see if civil 
rights were violated, was made 
in every Mississippi slaying 
mentioned by Howard, 

It was decided no. civil rights 
were involved .in* twti of the 
cases, lie added. The decision 
,pn the third, the death of the 
Rev. G. W. Lee, was not- cited^ 

Hoover said Howard seems 
to '"have conveniently forgotten 
the* work of this Bureau which 
was largely responsible for the 
virtual elimination of lynching 
in the South and also was 
mainly responsible *for the 
breaking up; of the Ku Klux 
Klan in the Carolinas and 

3 Killings Cited 

The killings that stirred How- 
ard's criticism were those of 
Lee, the , shooting of Lamar 

Smith and the kidnaping of' 
Emmett Till! 

Lee was found dying in his) 
wrecked car in Belzoni last May 
7.- Leaders of the National As-j 
sociation for the Advancement! 
of Colored People said he wasj 
shot as he drove along /the; 

Lamar Smith also was; active 
in civil rights, work. He/ was 
shot down in Brookhaven's 
dowritown square last Aug. 13 
A grand jury said it could find 
no witnesses. ■ 

Till, a 14-year-old Chicago 
Negro? was snatched from his 
uncle's home neap Money after 
allegedly wolf-whistling at a 
white \^oman and making "in- 
suiting" remarks. The woman's 
< husband and brother-in-law 
were acquitted of i^isig^they 
•murdered Till; S grand jury 
refused to indict on a kidnap 
charge.. ' * 






Boardman . 
Belmont _ 



Parsons __ 




Winterrowd _ 
Tele. Room . 

Hollo man 






3 9. 


nor r. 



Wash. Post and 
Times Herald 

Wash. News 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald _ 
■ Tribune 
N. Y. Mirror 



N. Y. Daily News 

Dally Worker 

The Worker 

New Leader 

rw» i-£a-4L 

0-19 (7-8-55) 







MEMPHIS- , Jan. 19;* (#);— FBI 
Director J, Edgar Hoover yes- 
terday accused a Negro leader 
of "false, and irresponsible" 
charges'against the- FBI's- 'han- 
dling of several Mississippi racial* 
^killings., • '.. ;. 

In .a letter to Dr.. T. $n\M 
Howard of Mound Bayou, Miissu 
president - of the , Mississippi 'Re- ] 
gionai Council of Negro- Leaderr 
ship/ Mr. Hoover said: 

"I do not propose to permit 
falsa charges made .-against ihi| 
bureau to, go unchallenged:" ;f 
Reached in Los Angeles, Dr; 
Howard told the Memphis' Com- 
mercial-Appeal he would* Mye a 
full statement later ori Mr. Hoo- 
ver's demand -that he submft 
|vidence 6n his charges or pub 
My retract them;, 
*'Mr. Hoover .particularly re , 
sented Dr. Howard's publicizes 
statement, in regard: to v three 
recent slayingSi.thatv . '? , 

"We- must find- pUt why .South- 
ern investigatorsi- of the FBI 
can',t seem to solve a crime wher£; 
a Negro is, involved." . ' \ ' 
Mr;. Hoover said a, full arid i'mr 
partial investigation was made 
in every case, at the direction of 
the^Department of Justice,,, and 
the department decided, - civil 
* rights: were not involved. 

"You seem to have conveni- 
ently forgotten the. work of -this: 
bureafo: 'which was largely re- 
sponsible for .the virtual elimina-/ 
tion of lynchings in the South 
and. also was mainly responsible 
for the breakings up- of the Ku 
Klux Klan in the Carolinas and, 
Georgia," Mr, Hoover .said. 

Dr. Howard is president 'Of the 
National Medical Association.. 
He heads, Friendship Clinic in 
MouM Bayou; the Nation's , only 
all-Negro town, located in the 
M^s^ssfepWDelta, about 70 miles 
s outh, of M emphis. * ■ ■ -7 ff j i 

8 FEB 


Mr, Tolson 

Mr. Boardman 
Mr. Nichols _ 
Mr. Belmont — 

Mr. Harbo 

. Mohr 

. Parsons _ 

Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoo 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman „ 
Miss Gandy 


* 3$ a 3 


Wash. Post and — 
Times Herald 

Wash. News _^ 

Wash. Star \S 

N. Y. Herald 


N. Y. Mirror 

Daily Worker 

The Worker ; 

New Leader 

Date /- /^S'ft 

0-19 (7-8-55) 

Mr. Tolson 

Mr. Boardman 

Mr. Nichols 

Mr. Belmont _ 

Mr. Harbo 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons __ 

Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoo 


/i?$4&t3T/#J Qf@ *Tt%%*S Coirf&tJLs 6 £'?>n*£Si£4 * 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman __ 
Miss Gandy 

He " poinfed"fif * that "Eool^ 

magazine, ia a- recent issue, bid 

" Tvealed chies pointing tp^the 

persons guilty of Iddfia^tSg and 

murdering young. Till;* He called 

the Till case" ^'a 'crime' which Ai& 

graced the state of Mississippi and 

the* U.S. before the eyes pi civiliz-l 

ed peoples, throughout the world 

and aroused universal protest/* 

CBAE& SINGER ■ .. ' , . Tim/sc n BermaiiV resolution is &£ fat 

ATBANY Tan 17--A resolution to: memorialize Congress, to expe^ben. james u r action m the 1956 legislature on. 

^^i^it-Tri rormssJSen Herbert H. Lehnians bill creating an Electoral Eracfr* the Till fnurder^and the fet tiiat 

scs Commission to guarantee me yoimg ngau> ui. <m ; w — _ .__, b___ ^ y a Democrat which, calk for ..ex- 

T$e proposals by Assemblyman 
el- "1. Befmari, Brooklyn Bern- 
were part, of an ataclc on 



White supremacy violence and the ; 
/lynch- murder of 14-year-old Em- 
met* Tiir in Mississippi. Berman 

represents the 17th A.D. in Bed- pulsion from high office Qf anotlier 
i-u ci. ^«f Democrat. The BedfordrStuyves? : 


Benrian calledifor a i full Congress 
sional and Department of Justice 
(investigation into the slaying, of 
till. Assailing the "crass Mississippi 
court justice" which permitted the 
accusect tellers of Till* to go free, 
Berman linked this action with 
Eastland's support' of the White 
Citizens Council and other a£& 




13ft JAN «>v> 1956 

v o 

\ >V.w 


Negro" and hate groups in the 

Eastland, he said, Vis palpably 
unfit /to uphold the laws- of the' 
/and." } 

Berman further urged the- Legis- 
lature to ask that Congress support 
a demand by Hep. Charles- Diggs. 
(O-Mich) "not td seat the Mississippi 
pi delegation, nntil it pledged to, 
uphold die X&th. Amendment of thi 

Berman charged that white s\C 
premapy groups, "have been wapf 
ing. a violent* assault on the 14th, 
Amendment, - victimizing Negro, 
businessmen, farmers and workers 1 
with economic boycott and spread*! 
ing. hate and terror in the South.*' 
lie asked tlie Legislature to memo 
rialize Congress "to order an in- 
vestigation into the White Citizens 
Councils" and "to make mandatory: 
orTtfe^ Department of 'lBw£ww>' 
thorough^ investigation and' the 
furnishing of expert witnesses m 
cases such as that of Emmett Till/* 

ant legislator said, when this, was* 
pointed out to him, that ^Eastland r 
'doesn't represent anything dem- 
ocratic, .big *D\ or small 'cT, and as: 
far as I*m concerned he is a. dis- 
grace to- my party and everyth^^ 
the- Constitution stands fpx?' J^ 

The resolution ia3 a lot d^snpf 
jEpj^ih tlie legislature, especially- 
from those in New York City. 

Wash. Post and 
Times Herald 

Wash, News 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald _ 

N. Y. Mirror _ 
Daily Worker. 
The Worker _ 
New Leader - 



0-19 (11-22-55) 








JA<3KSONi Miss;,. Jari;l8 (£>).— 
Mississippi lawmakers/ seeking' a 
new method, to defend- racial 
segregation, considered' .today a 
bill that would makeV it ,a. crime- 
to- slander Mississippi, and: its 
institutions. \ ^.'V , 

Apparently- aimed; afi. groups 
- that: criticize segregation in Mis- 
sissippi,, the^bilL'was in the- hands 
of the House Judiciary Com- 
mittees ' 

The* bill was- introduced yes- 
terday as Attorney General J. P; 
foJeiiaan.; pledging ta te?ep segre' 
.fatten,, too k -his bath of -o fiic 
Is Governor of Mississippi. Gov 
f oleman. and' tafe, Legal ,Educa 
^Agory .Committed dre^ 

f3^ LEAC ' s sble P^Pose is 
xo find ways, to. evade the Su-I 
(Rreme; Court; decision that out 
laws segregation: i£ vu m { 
schools. ^ 

j Tlje : bill would: make-, it a crim 
ito libel, slander or defame "anj 
S' . c ^nty, city, community 
their inhabitants, their institu- 
tion, or .their government." " 
^Offenders Would receive 
jjaximum penalty -of §1,000 'fiuH 

Jfr, State penitentiary. * . " 



Tolson __ 

elmont - 





Tamm _ 


Winterrowd . 
Tele. Room 
Gand 1 



Hot rs^Ci ~ ^-^. ' - *?y - 

Wash. Post and 
Times Herald 
Wash. News . 
Wash. Star _ 
N. Y. Herald 

N. Y. Mirror 

N. Y. Daily News 

Daily Worker 

The Worker 

New Leader 


jam 1 8 ma 

> JAM m* * ? ^f; 


r> *■*■ 

1/18/5$ ' 
Page IS, Col. 1 

AnH-TneSgration BSkQoes 
to Miss; Houses 

JACKSON, Miss.,, Jan. 17 W- 
A segregation bill- drastically en- 
larging- thejEield of criminal libel 
was introduced in the Mississippi 
House of Representatives Tues- 

The bill would make it a crime 

to libel, slander, or defame "any 

state, county, city, community; 

' their inhabitants, their- dnstitu : 

tions, or their government'" , 

It is intended^ to- be another 
weapon against integration of the 
races, apparently by^cutting. off 
bitjter criticism of Mississippi by; 
groups seeking integration. 1 / ' f 
A minimum penalty "of a $1000 
fine and one year in county jail 
or state* penitentiary is* provided 
in the bill which was referred to 
the, House judiciary committee 

Violators would be prosecuted 
jas in other criminal cases. 
Bill Outlined ' 
The bill also would: 

1. Include slander— spoken de- 
famatory words— under 'the crim- 
inal libel laws. Under common- 
law, and present Mississippi 
statutes, slander cannot bring a 
criminal prosecution against "a 

2. .Make it a .penitentiary of- 
fense: to use words by .telephone 
or any other method of communi- 
cation that -"are considered . ob- 
scene or indecent or as insults 
and calculated to lead to a breach 
of the peace/' 

The bill was, proposed "by Gov. 
J. P. Coleman, who was inaugu- 
rated Tuesday and; the: legal edu-' 
cation advisory committee, the 
agency created to find 1 ways of- 
avoiding* ""the 1 ' United/ States su- 
preme court ^decision, outlawing 
• -segregation* iff giiBtfc' schools/ 
It would enlarge*, the . general 
common-law that th£ persons who 
can be libeled are: Individuals, a 
group* or; class of person's, who can 
be identified easily,' an unincor- 
porated association and itsL-uafiow 

' rhflrr, mfl , perhaps, a corporation; 


.FEB '2 

i V V J 


'Defama ftfty Wotf ds? Defined 

The bill would place the same 
penalties on anyone, who speaks, 
writes or -publishes "defamatory 
words.' 1 THe-actdefines them asl 

"Any word, or statement;, oral 
t or writteni ,not ; lioel or slander;, 
' but which nevertheless,, if truey 
would tend. to expose, a person; 
to hatred, "contempt, or ridicule, 1 
to degrade or disgrace him- in 
.society/ or tb> injure .him, in, his 
business or occupation.* ' 

Under a prosecution for any -of 
the : offenses, the bill' would: allow 
a defendants show "the, truth of 
• the matter spoken^ ' written or; 
published •.. . \ with good motives; 
and: for justifiable ends;" If -he* 
can- prove these things, the. jury 
must free him. • * 

The opportunity; to prove the' 

Itrutfi "with good motives arid |pr 
justifiable ends?' is- a relaxajfcori 
of the common-law rule,. wHaclv 
• did not allow thV truth as a d'eV 
fense if the words tended to-cause: 
a breach : of the peace.. 

Right to Show Truth 
The right ip show the "truth 
, with good motives is contained 1 in 
Mississippi's, present criminal 
libel laws. 
The last major section of the 
, bill -places a maximum penalty- 
of $1000 fine and one' year in 
county jail or state penitentiary 
% for: , - ' ,'-.. -; * 

4 'Any 'person who shall "tie con* 
victed.of the use of words$y tele? 
phone v or other oral,, communica- 
tion, or by telegraph,vnewspaper," 
letter, or other- written-commuiuV 
cation;, which wor^s^jfrom: their, 
.jisluaT c'onstmctiom^d; "common 
- acceptation, are ^bn|ider,ed;£LS; pb- 
. scene 4 or 1 indee§itt^r:*';as;^ insults 
|, an^balcda4e^t0ie>d^f 6$ 'breach' 
r o#tSe. peace; i £p$... \-'y : \ :\; > ' " 

Tolson— . 
Mr. Nichols- 
Mr. B#&dn#m^ 


Mr. M-roa — 

Mr. Molir • 

; Mi*. Parsons 

Mr. Kosen 

Mr. Tamm — - — 

Mr. Nease 

Mr. Winterrowd. 
Tele. Room.-— v- 
Mr. Hollottan..- 
Miss Ganciy , — 



i I3S5 



JAN I S 1955 

|f bl •• hiCW OrtilANS 







The Selma Times Journal 
8 el ma, Alabama 
January 18, 1956 

jftiward B. Field, Editor 

"New Challenge To Supreme GbiifF 

;^„ ' Senatdr Sam En&elhardt, of- Macon, county,, is sponsor pf a new and 
Interesting, maneuver aimed "at "making Alabama exenfpt from' iui 
^%preAe^oili^^ban';on-tfegregaUpp in the public schools: 

<' ^ . Senator .Ehgelhardt's maneuver, in- th form of a* resolution before the, : 
>; /Alabama Legislature, holds that in outlawing- school segregation, the 
^{Supreme Court'ihvef feet sought to amend the Federal* Constitution. 
A >' Citing, the; fact .that 1 the Constitution itself- prohibits amendments of- 
.^sucji nature", the Erigelhardt resolution adds:: ' , w , 

;;^ .-< "Until such, fime as 'the Constitution "may be' amended' in the; manner 
1 Sjlrovidedby that Constitution, this state is under no obligation to.acce& 
t ..fjfcd£ere*;of the Supreme Court" based upon an, authority not found iriK 
, IhelEonstitutidri- '.fade any amendment thereto. \ ,. " | 

'■*,W' ' *Vn the^ontrary/'.the resolution continues, this, state is in honojj 
Abound' to a'c'f'to ward*of£ ; the. attempted exercise of a power -which does 
] -not, exist lest pthei?'. excesses be I .encouraged." ,' { 
■"V , The, resojtitipn stipulates that until the constitution is amended' to 
, proMbit'.segregatiqri^the governor "shall insure that the public schools: 
% Alabama shall ;be 'operated in th£- future as they have- been in the. 
: : ^asjt;"' ' ,,*/ «.;*„■■ V ;.•".* \, /.' , " \ ' ) : " 
* The i?esoluiibn-says f ;the Supreme Court'in ruling against the Southts 
■.traditional separate school system undertook "an' unlawful and unconV 
^;st?tutional' a&iii^fction of a power which; does not exists an agency 
created by a^ document* to which soveriegn states, were parties thereto- 
■ the constitution/ cannot legally amend the creating document when- that* 
/document dearly, specifies-; . , the manner of- amendment."' 
^ Y -The public schobjs. in Alabama, "and the- very, existence of this? state 
$re thre'ateneg; by the attempt of the- Supreme Court . '. . to .usurp a' 
r *'S§^er. does not have,." the- resolution adds.- "Nowhere -in the 
'. ^?%9^ i ^?; i i*!? oht S l ? dt ! s »:", is ^ ere an y Provision which^ says. the states 
if cannot 'enforce 4 ' segregation- as forig^as separate but; equal facilities, 
^are^ prbyided.'f ■. ; ': - , ' .- s i 

^ ■ /Whil^the average layman will find it difficult, to estimate the status 
;wnlch may be achieved by this resolution,-, it certainly sounds 16g|cal 
a^d^undou^tediy. Will: serve, a good purpose as another strong, chalMige 
v *d '»»' ?f sumption of power by the Supreme Court .which has no foufda- 
tfoxr,jn' written law. \ " ' . * / *•*."",. " ' M' •• 

, ■' The. weakness, of the position of tie integrationists is* that the Su- ' 
' preme/.;C6urt cited no- legal precedent or authority in nullifying a. past 
series of -''equal- facilities" rulings, upholding, ^egregatibn; in- principle 
af.'avniatter f or* the individual .stated to decide. * 
A, ;it| decision, was purely psychological, >which has ho, basis of fact, 
J in; the Constitution, , anoVii* cannot; be defended on legal' grounds: If 
^cojtfrpntetf With a -constant barrage of challenges based upon legal 
precepts, '-the high "court may; be.forced intb.recdhsideration of J a deci- 
sion based Upon; theory rather than law, because it ikohe which: cannot 
be defended adequately; even on the simple basis , of reason. . 



&• Boardman„ 

Mr. Belmont 

Mr. Mason 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsongi 

Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. N>wra. 

| Mr. Wmterrotrd, 

[ Tele, Koorn 

i Mr, HuUoman_ 
Miss Gatndy 


l./J/^ ,76-/ 

\\y ^ 







Page 1, Col. 5 j., i 


o Km 

JACKSDN> Miss, titf-Gov, 3j P;i 
Coleman told his state /and the 
nation today that Mississippi will 
keep segregation without violence 
arid- despite the federal govern- 
ment. \ , 

In all history "there 1 cannot be | 
found, one r single instance where ( 
a government has forced one race 1 
against its will, to integrate with 
another," he said in his inaugural 

'\7ith all due, respect to the 
ghty. power -of the United.States 
_ >veniment> it will never; be able 
to. force racial integration-lit- 3SJ|sf- 
slssippi. nor?jfh any other state 
where the people are unwilling 
to r jiaye it dorie^' the ,42-year-ild 
governor declared. ' 
"He urged .th§-rest of t the. nation 
to> consider- Mississippi's, position 
before- passing judgment: "We 
are entitled to the sympathetic 
understanding of our friends .in 
the remainder of the country, 
'Not a- Kacef of Killers' 

"• .** The white people of Mis- 
sissippi are not a race of Negro 

"We ask you to remember that 
by reason o£^the numbers in- 
volved, ' this problem is* .more 
acute here than in any other 
state in the nation. 

"It is not something which can 
be yiewed with complacency or 
ignored; and if you lived in Mis- 
sissippi arid knew the full situa- 
tion; you would look upon it as" 
we do.'? 

Negroes form 45 per cent of] 
Mississippijs population. 
Successor to White- 
Coleman succeeded Gov-. HiM 
White; He- 'has served: as disrfict 
attorney, circuit court judge, su- 
preme court justice and attorney 
( general. 

He began life as' a farm boy 
and^ worked, his way through col- 
lege in the depression' days, leav- 
ing the University of Mississippi 
to become- secretary to former 
Rep., A. L. Ford. " 1, 

He* went to night law school in 
Washington, T>\ C M and was grad- 
uated from George 1 Washington \ 
university in 1937. < 

•Special Message - 

Coleman predicted to a joint) 
session of thVLegislature" on the! 
capitol steps that- when he endsl 

"~7~ ^5>ee liOLEMAN—Page^ 

Mr. Tolaon — - — 

Mr. Nichols 

Mr. Boardman — 

Mr. Belmont; 

Mr. Mason — 

Mr. Mohr , 

Mr. Parsons 

Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Nease 

Mr. Winterrowd- 
Tele. Boom — — 

Mr, Hollomsaa 





126.FEB 2 .356 




his 'term four years from now 
'"the* separation >pf the "races in 
Mississippi: will be; left intact and 
will still be. in full force and ef- 
fect in -exactly the- same manner 
and form as we know it today.*' - 
t 'jwithout hamingw nullification 
specifically, Coleman urged Mis- 
issippi legislators to. postpone 
jiy resolution riullifymg-f-decl|r- 
- ing void— federal court; ;decisio|s 
j Outlawing segregation.. " ; . 1 
He promised A to. deliver ,a, s^ 
rial, message to. the Legislature 
soon on. the subject 

Colenlarr has 

'thrown cold wa- 

ter on proposal » that -'Mississippi 
nullify federal- decisions' and 










For Quick Action 




The Jackson Citizens', Council 
Wednesday commended the 
;' 'prompt and decisive" action of 
police here in maintaining segre- 
gation signs at rail and bus de- 
pots. " '. \ 

"We feel that your firm action 
has set a pattern and will do much 
in the days ahead to maintain the 
correct relations between the races 
in Jackson that- we have, enjoyed 
for such along time*" said W., J. 
Simmons, secretary, in' a- letter to 
Mayor Allen Thompson. 

Simmons said the board of di- 
rectors had Voted unanimously to 
commend the police, whd put: up 
their own segregation signs after 
others: were taken down Monday 
;byft order of the Interstate worn- 
|m<|k:ce commission. * J 



Mr, Tolson 

Mr. Nichols 

Mr. B^Hman_ 
Mr. Bchnont- 
Mr. Ma-son- 
Mr. Mohr_ 
Mr. rai 
Mr, Ef&Vefi 

Mr. nmm 

Mr. Nease 

Mr. Wintorrowd.. 

Tele. Room ^_ 

Mr. HollomaikL_ 
Miss Gandy 


./11/56 ^ 

acce 6A Col. 8 ^ 


1 nor Rse^.-i '<" 


138 t JflK 25*656 





„,.« <SJ^*W«*WIW 

l ^ /> * *> ** ps 

0-19 (11-22-55) 

1 , / 

JACKSONr,Mi$s\, Janl 10 (£>); 
-4&igiis; r d^i^Irik' the races, hi 
railroad and bus stations - rer 
mained- in several cities todays as 
officials; insisted segregated fa- 
cilities will-remain, despite a con- 
trary liari by • the Interstate Con> 
merce 1 - Commission. 

Chief W. b. Rayfleld, of the 
Jackson, City Police said his men. 
will be stationed at' the Illinois 
Central Railroad depot to en- 
force, the city's stand if neces- 
sary. Police replaced segregation 
sighs * removed by railroad 

The Jackson ^order against, in- 
tegration, ChieJ -Rayfleld said, 
will'' apply : to all .passengers, 
whether interstate ' or ; intrastate; ; 

The. ICC- ordered, an end to 
segregated waiting rooms for in- 
terstate • travelers .and the-" order 
went' in. effect today. The edict 
doeinot apply to passengers who 
won't ;cross State lines." 

The, segregation signs re- 
ma ned. m lL G ulfPort' and Green? 
wood. 'Mayor" A, S.-ZtoRToI 

Laurel sa(d : train" and ; ;J^l^g^ 
tions will remain segregatedvand 
the- city ; will' put up- new sighs if 
the transit . companies* take the 
present ;6hes down. ". 

The Southern* Railway- station 
in- , Hattiesburg , posted a sign 
reading "Colored Waiting Room 
for Intrastate Passengers." Ap- 
parently,- Negro passengers trav 
eling .across* State' -lines had the 
choice of 'using the Negro 
white' facility. 

Assistant Attorney General .Jcpj 
Patterson said, it already "*is h ijaj 
misdemeanor to- violate * trjej 
State's segregation laws, punisn-i 
able by fines of $100 to $1,00M i 

Mr. Tpllqn / */- 

Mr. Boardman ^> . 
Mr. Belmont _ 

Mr. Mason 

Mr. Mohr 

Mi*. Parsons _ 

Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Nease 

Mr. Winterrowd 
Tele. Room — 
Mr. Holloman — 
Miss Gandy 





Wash. Post and . 
Times Herald 

Wash. News . 

Wash. Star ^ 

N. Y. Herald 



/^4~~ 3<fz 






N. Y. Mirror 

N. Y. Daily News 

Daily Worker 

The Worker 

New Leader 

JAN 1 1135B 



I AW nn 'W 


0-19 (11-22-55) 


Mr; Tolson n - 
fr. NichoiySJ^pl 


So^hern Democrats Assail Die's Pfe 

Rights Abuse Charges 

,.. By Ernest B. Vac.caw 
i Associated Fresf. 

President Eisenhower's rec- 
ommendation' that. Congress set 
up, a bipartisan commission to 
investigate alleged: , violations 
of Negroes' civil rights ran in,to 
opposition yesterday from 
Southern Democrats; 

Sen. Harry' Byrd (D-Va») 
termed' it ."very peculiar for 
the;. .President, to suggest that 
^Jmgress: set up a commission 

"investigate 1 some. acts which 
apparently ., believes., are 

ainst.the law." 
♦Rep, Adam C. Powell ' (D- 
N. * Y,) called' the President's 

suggestion "sheer buck-pass- 
ing." Powell, a Negro, said the 
Administration already has the 
power to- investigate such 

; : Mississippi's- two ■ Democratic 
Senators James O. Eastland 
arid John, C. Stennis— joined 
in a statement saying. Eisen- 
hower's proposal "presents just 
another aspect of the old force 
bill idea that has been a peren- 
nial in American politics for 
SO years." 

t Asserting Congress has" no 
jurisdiction "over the qualifica- 
tions of electors and related 
matters"' and no authority to 

confer such jurisdiction, oh a 
commission x they declared: 
"We, shall, of course, oppose. 

Other Democratic -Senators 
said privately any attempt to 
pass a bill carrying out Eisen- 
hower's recommendation would 
run into a filibuster. " 

Former Gov. James P. Byrnes 
of South Carolina, -who' sup- 
ported Eisenhower in 1952, 
commented that "the white peo- 
ple 'of the Southern states ., . . 
will have to act in concert and 
with independence if they j 
to receive any consideration 
from either the Democratic 
Party or the Republican 

Eisenhower, in recommend- 
ing the commission, said in his 
State of the Union Message: 

"It is disturbing that in some 
localities allegations persist 
that Negro citizens are being 
deprived of their right to vote 
and are likewise subjected to 
unwarranted economic pres-i 

j "I recommend that the stft- 

/stance of ^these charges We 

' f lnoroughly examined by a %- 

partisan commission created by 

'the Congress." ' % 

-or rslcopo^o" 

I2S JAN 24 %S 


'^Mr. BoardmaiT—ZS 
Mr. Belmont 
Mr. Mason 

Mr. Mohr . 
Mi*. Parsons 
Mr. Rosen 
Mr. Nease 
Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room -- 

Mr. Holloman 
Miss Gand 

Wash. Post and 
Times Herald 

Wash. News 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald — 

N, Y. Mirror 


N. Y. Daily News 

Daily Worker 

The Worker 

New Leader 

nnt» JAM 7 1950 









£ f 






jThpiond Hits 
Possible FBI 
Council Probe 

The Morninjc News Washington Burma 

WASHINGTON, Jan. 5 - The 
possible investigation of the Citi- 
zens Councils of the Southern 
Slates by the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation was denounced as 
federal "meddling" by Sen. Strom 
Thurmond yesterday. 

"The enforcement of state laws 
rests upon each state. The Justice 
Department, nor any other federal 
ageneyVihas a right to meddle in 
that." ijenator Thurmond said. 
, "We don't have a national police 
'force ii;| this country, thank good- 
ness. The FBI is an investigative 

vestigation ol 

violations of federal 

law. Xothing 

has come to my al- 

tent ion whiel 

i indicates that the 

Citizens Conn 

cils have in any way 

violated any 

ederal or state laws-. 

In fact, they 

are publicly pledged 

.o fight intciii 

at ion l)v losial means 

"They ha\e a! to use any 
legal means ai their disposal to 
light a Supreme Court decision 

Florence Morning News 
Florence, S. C, 
Jan. 6. ;956 

REG. REC'D / ^_* m 

DATE FCRW. j¥JL&£* •— 

HOW YQffl. J4g£l&£. 


Senator Tl 


nd, a mem! 

)er ol 

the national 

ad\ isoi \ vuiiiiiin 
spoke out again 

toe of 
st re- 

cent reports 


the FBI m 

iy be 



ens Coune 

lis of 

the South in 

an in 

er\iew wit 

) this 

paper's Was 


n correspoi 


He said in the 



"from what 

I can 

rather in 




people ol 


Palmetto Sta 

to arc 

mainly ini 


ed in three b 


which will I 

>e be- 

fore Cong re 

-s du 

ring the s 


session; 1. 


ving the 1 

ol yyf 

the fa! knot's: 

2. Pi 

otecling th 

-* t/x- 

tile wjitMry 


i the impo 

rt/ of 

cheap joreigi 

i man 

ulactured g 

and; 3"prese 


the rights ( 

>f the 

sovcreisn st: 




O ^ 




Mr. Tolson* 

Mr. Nichrj 

Mr. BoardmarTl.^ 
t Mr. lM?>fr ^ 
\ Mr. Mrvscn. 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons„>i rf 

Mr. Rosen-fc^Sx* 

Mr. Tarnm, 

Mr. Noaso. 

Mr. Wint'UTOwd. 
Tele. Room._\™ 
Mr. Hollomi 
Miss Gandy-^|i 

* /w 

* ' It \ 



* } 



7 1956 




It J&"^ t. *&<'*- * •*■"' 

'.' - -o 

tfimjjfest weapon yet grasped by Dixie's, 
most ardent, champions of segregation, 
is the "doctrine of interposition^* 

It is little, more- than a : specter frotn the 
republic's, tortured, past, a false principle 
long ago 'discarded. / '. - ' ■ 

Yet a desperate breed' of political ex- 
termists in Virginia and elsewhere are 
hailihg it today as ^a respectable legal 
proposition licensing open defiance of 
the. XL S; Supreme Court , and 'constitu- 
tional government 

Nothing could be further from the 

• Interposition lies, buried with the Civil 
War dead. It cannot be resurrected in 


, « * * 

4ccdrding to historians, the belief in in- 
terposition -*- Of "nullification" — 'is 
)ased oh/ the. theory .that the union of, 
;tates: jfefa voluntary one. Each member 
•etains its sovereignty, although, for pur- 
joses of convenience^ certain powers of 
government are delegated to an agent, the 
ederal government. But if, in the opinion 
)f the state, the federal government 
isurps a right belonging to the state,, the 
atter, being sovereign, must judge for 
tself. It may nullify. the unauthorized 

The earliest assertions of' the doctrine 
:ante in 1798-99. in the Kentucky and Vir- 
ginia resolutions protesting the Alien and 
Sedition' Actsv of Congress. These were 
ratten; respectively, by Thomas Jeffer- 
on and James^ Madison but were never 
mrsuddto a final test; The- Sedition Act 
expired under its own terms in 1801. . 

There are records of^a'form of inter- 
>osition being practiced in Pennsylvania 
n, 180^, by a governor who ordered out, 
tate. troops to' resist a federal court dd- 
■ree.. Later, Georgia .and Alabama ford- 
>ly prevented the execution of federal" 
aws and court decrees relating to the In-* 
Hans.. Once, the Georgia House- of Kepfe- | 
ehtatives even- passed a bill providing; 
hat any federal marshal who attempted' 
o enforce a particular federal court de- ! 
ree would be hanged. Soiith C^rolinVs j 
unification- of the tariff laws ia 1832 wa& 
ased upon a theory expounded by Jblirt ' 
!. Calhoun; It was Calhoun's- notion thdt 

state- aggrieved by' a federal law might' 
.ispend the operation 1 pf the law and re- 
ort its: action, to xhe other states. If 
iree-fburths of them decided that the: 
bjectionable law "was. frot unconstittf- - 
onarthen it in^ffect.b^^e^alifi^B^ 
he dissatisf ied!t%fet^Ml wlfeiM stfe * 
lit or secede. *'* *-* '<<§ T .\yv . 

Thus tha way was- paved for jhejjgw l 

ntefposition ha's> a- seductive ap^eaHor 

many a southerner: today; Hut as a legal 
proposition; it has no validity; It is an 
error, which has led to trouble in the past 
and promises nothing better in the fu- 
ture. . " 

Whether' one agrees- or disagrees with 
the U. S. Supreme j Court on, segregation 
in the public schools is beside the point:. 
All Americans— North 'and South— are 
united in a devotion to the constitution 
and to constitutional . government as we 
have known it through the yeari The' 
traditions and principles on which that 
government is based are worthy of the 
repect of every citizen. 

It must be remembered that we in 
America live in a federal union undpr a* 
written constitution 'which embodied! 
thj/ee fundamental cqnceptsii^ . _ j 

//Ones is that the citizen has certain i\ - 
cgvidual rights which no one can dei& 
him. These are outlined in the first ten 
amendments to the. constitution, known 
as t}ie Bill of Rights.. - ' - 

Another is the concept /df dual sover^ i 
eignty, under which certain, powers are h 
enjoyed by the states and others by the : 
national government. * 

Finally, there is -the concept of -separa- 
tion of powers, whereby no branch of the 
government shall be given sovereign : 
power. . 

But these concepts . will amount to' 
nothing unless the constitution is en- 
forced as the law of the land— not merely \ 
as a pious hope, not merely as standards. ; 
for individuals or states to observe or hot \ 
to observe as they see fit. * | 

Whenever a state;! steps on -the- domain ! 
of government that action, shall* be null j 
andvoidi ' . '^■■*. ' " '] 

It is the same when the" federal governs , 
ment takes actiqn encroaching upon the 
rights of states or individuals; ■ < - 

JBut flj y/e arato-havfe. a government of '" 

law arid not of 'arbitrary \M11. there must { 

*be a' body to declare, the law; That body ' 

in. the United States is. the;, Supreme ! 

Court, the' keystone of the arch of con- ; 

v stitutional government- 

*•-*<* ■ . \ 

The chief function ,of; the Supreme* ; 
Court is to stay the hands, of those ! 
whp would encroach upon the rights- en* j 
'joyed by the federal government, the j 
states -or individuals. In addition, it has j 
the obligation of. preserving the consti- ! 
Uutionai balance— ^between the. nation and;^ 
Hhe states and betjvegnjfche three branches] ^ 
of the national government. :?r 


j Mr. Towl2- 

/**7X8 ^ r ' ^ oar <h*ian 

(MprVx. Belmont-„ 

''}/ j Mr. Mwa 


Mr. Mohr... 
Mr. rp^xons . 
Mr. I^st-a 
I Mr. Taium.. 

Mr. Kfas« 

Mr. Whiterrowd- 

Tele. ."Room 

Mr. H^Il^man 

Miss Gaudy 

- 1 

Charlotte News 
Charlotte, N.C. 

Cecil Prince, 
Associate Editor 



. jam w: m> 

A . * * 


Tims the principles of law and political 
^rartie^ place*' the guardianshi^jif^e 
constitution in the, hands of the. juidici- 
ary. But the/constitution draws the lines 
in only general terms* They are in con- 
stant need of Interpretation and reinter- 
,pretation. ' 

It ]vas a reinterpretation of the con- 
stitution which produced the Supreme 
Court decision of May 17, 1954, banning 
segregation in the 'public schools. The 
ancient separate-but-equal doctrine was 
upset. It was, to us, a disappointing de- 
cision for the separate-but-equal philoso- 
phy seemed well-rooted in law and in 
logic. v" 

But, as Chief Justice Marshall observe^ 
in 1819 in McCulloch Vs. Maryland, the 
constitution is' "intended to endure for 
ages to come, and consequently, to be 
adapted .to the various crises of human 
affairs." It is a living doeument. It is 
naive of any American to think that it is 
.finished and immutable. It falls to the 
Supreme Court to keep it alive and grow- 
ing. It is true that the interpretations are 
by men. That is inescapable. But the in- 
terpretations are made according' to gen- 
eral principles of government in the light 
of the wisdom of the times under which 

governmental powers- are to be applied. 

* * * * 

the decision of the court, however un- 
palatable, should not be made the 
subject 'of scorn. To defy scornfully and 
arrogantly the law as it is handed down 
by the court* is to defy constitutional 

Interposition has a fetching label and 
a history full of bluff and bluster. But it 
represents a futile, inappropriate gesture. 
Moreover, it is inconsistent with the prin-' 
cipl'e of constit^fiflnjaJ^overnment as we 
know and practice them. 

d s*v 

f \ r l 





Avoid 'Nullification' 

ennis Urges 
Get A Hies For Fight 


Sen. Jcjhn Sterinis told the Daily 
Jews ah an exclusive telephone in- 
erview 1 from Washington Wednes- 
lay- that Mississippi should throw 
iway words like "nullification" and 
iriite. with other states for segre- 
gation., " ' 

"It would be a mistake," Sen: 
lterinis',said, "for one state to at- 
erript to- act alone." 

He urged that states with prob- 
ers similar, -to t Mississippi's cg : 
^inate^lfegisrative moves towatd 
unending the< XL S. Constitution - n 

eguafd; control- over such; intern* 
affair^ as segregation. 

^uni fication* means lawlessness 
;6 many Americans, he pointe|:out, 

and language should be designed to 
attract rather than repel support. 

in the. interview, Sew. Stennis 
laid' also that: he: 

1.- Endorses "the Citizens' Coun- 
cils, adding, however, that he is not 
i member because "they have not 
irgahized .in' Kemper Count y," 
Inhere. his home, DeKalb, is located 

2, Sees, no justification for a Jus- 
ice Department investigation' of 
he, councils. . 

-31. WbRld oppose the councils if 
hey "should: attempt to substitute 
hemsel^es'fora court;" • **-■* - V 
JLDenies-thathe is alliedwllkh 
^v.-elect J. P. Coleman agafe 

AGENCY <*frfr~i 

low FC:o/.^<r — 

'« 1 T "V I-. « a 'J Ta w commbn-.battle for and language 
Mi^?\??^ attract and, not »e*«l 

support," • 
"There will 

Bel} Williams and Circuit i u d g. e 
Tom Brady in a split over nullifi- 
cation. f i 

5. Was not invited to attend a 
meeting in Memphis last weeb of 
the Federation for Constitutional 
Government but did not feel 

'6. Expects a 'fight for a civil 
rights, plank in the Democratic 
presidential platform at the na- 
tional fcbnvehtion- in Chicago next 

-7%:-S j'p ported Se'natd Major- 
ity /lieader .Lyndon* Joftn'son ; of 
TMas- as fye.< Se&ocrajSfeg^ nonu 
nfe ior President tiit| retracted 

k (Continned On Page *||irelV«t>__ 





age 1 Cols. 2 ~ L 

>*\ -- 

<Continued from Pajfee 1 » 

(tills endorsement at Sen. Johnson's 
iiest after his recent illness. 
f 'One State Can't Act Alone* 
' As to the nullification proposal, 
which calls- for the state legislature 
to void the U. S. Supreme Court 
ruling on segregated schools, Sen. 
Sterinis- said, "We are dealing with 
a grave matter that can not be 
solved by one state acting alone." 
I'The states affected most by 
this special problem must move on 
a common front and on a : unified 
plan that they can agree on," he 
continued.. "I strongly favor form- 
ing such, a plan and believe that 
iit will be formed and that the 
plan- will include efforts by the 
states, for an amendment to^ the 
U. S. Constitution which' would, in 
effect, overrule the Supreme Court 

"This would be a< constitutional 
process," Sen. Stennis said. "As to 
how far the language of such a 
resolution should go- is a. matter of 
opinion. It should -certainly cover 
the voiding of the- decision!" 

'•'The word nullification is rioi 
necessary and for my part I would 
advise, against the use of that 
particular word," he added. "In 
some parts of the nation, that" par- 
ticular word carries a. meaning of' 
lawlessness and the use of force—! 
the very opposite of what \i in-! 
tended by the people of Mississip- 
rj, v/ / «'I feel sure that the states can 
V tf * ,$pyagSflier on language- tlraW&ey 
. \j I -canto all approve and can make. 

be. much, activity 
along these lines," he said, "but 
time is necessary, of course." 

As to the Citizens Councils, Sen. 
Stennis said the organizations 
which have mushroomed through- 
out Mississippi since the Supreme 
Court desegregation ruling are 
"doing some good work." ■. 

"I believe they are lawfully con-: 
ducted and I like their open action, 
he. said. "I believe they will keep 
it on a highplain." 

"I have repeatedly advised that; 
our problem must have the utmost! 
attention at all levels including the! 
ilocal level and* the Citizens Coun J . 
cil is. one way of giving this atten-; 
tion," Sen. Stennis . continued/ 
"They reflect collective t thought! 
and the common sense approach, 
I know of many instances in va- 
rious counties in' the state where 
the council has been very sound 
and helpful;" 

'Acting In The Open* 

As to the Justice Department's 
investigation of the councils, he 
said, "I don't think they'll find any; 
basis whatsoever for any (charges! 
of) illegal or subversive activity., 
They are actingin the open." 

However, he added: "If any Citi-j 
zens Council should attempt to sub-j 
stitute themselves' for a court, t I 
would, oppose it." . 

"I know* of no justification ior 
an investigatipn* and p . t assume- it 
came at the insistence * of the 
NAACP or other allied, groups; 
Sen. Stennis said; 

Asked if his support of a consti-< 
tutionai amendment might be con- 
sidered endorsement of' Gov.-elect 
iColeman's charges that the nullifi- 
cation plan is "legal poppycock," 
Sen. Stennis replied;/! can^^jspfiak 
oluY for myself;" 


«*> JAN. 30.356 




...... F1L£D„ 

JAN1 11956 


Although: he. never .dfficirffjHsup- 
p orted j Colerhan in his gubernator- 
ial racej Sen* Stennis'told: news- 
men at the time that he would vote 
for him. Coleman also favors- a con- 
stitutional amendment rather than 
nullification and has urged tha.t 
the state move, cautiously* Tire, 
amendment -proposal, was suggest- 
ed; first' by former Gov;. -Fielding 
Wright ' < , ; , .. 

As. to.disagreeing' with Sen. East- 
land and other nullification, advo- 
cates v Sen., Stehds- said he sees no 
split in* basic 1 issues;/ k , 

Asked why he did not attend the 
Memphis meeting, which- attracted 
leading .-segregationists -— including 
,Sen. ^astlahd4-from:throughqut the 
South, Sen. Stenriis: replied that he 
was hot invited*. 

"As far >as I know, they w er e 
different states ;" f he said* 

He ^said he expects, to, attend.'the 
Democratic convention in Chicago 
next summer' and' predicted a civil 

*1 hope we can put up a solid,' 
.front against it/ ? he' said; j 

His first choice for', the^ pemp?| 
fcratic presidential nomination isj 
Sen. Johnson, who, decided not toi 
*ru» after hi& recent illness. Sjm; 
Stjjnnis said he "has hot picked a 

^e(fpnd L :Choi'ce yet. 

*$$T<m The Hall Syndicat Inc. i V3/$6 

vsrf 3^2 Madison Avenue Jew tork 3,7, New York < - 


■ ■I., m i i nn ii I <iwm*,m.. i ii » >i ii i K n< , 


By Victor Riesel V 

This southern White C itizens Co uncil., thing may cost the next Democratib pre si* 
dential nominee millions of political dollars and thousands of can^aigners «~ all of 
which would have been supplied by labor in this year, 

The boss man of the White Citizens kaa$>f, a man by the name of John U. Barr,. 
has particularly irritated the labor leaders for quite a while now. Ever since 
1914*, in fact, when he got up and shouted at a meeting that he was launching a 

"•••to destroy the political dictatorship of Hillman, Browder and Dubinsky and 
to save constitutional government* " 

You need not have had any fraternal sentjjnent for Sidney Hillman and Dave 
Dubinsky to resent hearing them linked to Comrade Stalin' s comrade, Earl Browder, . 
It so happens I was in a personal feud with the late Sidney Hillman then. But never 
was it insinuated that the leader of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union had j^ 
anything but loathing for Russia's top agent here. \&^ 

As for Dubinsky, this peppery little fellow led the rest of labor in dispatching 
men, money, materiel and brilliant tactics in a fight which beat down Soviet agents 
in Germany, Italy, France and Asia, And this at a time when our State Dept* and 
Allied Militaay Government was harassing Dubinsky' s men and feeding Communist sym-* 
pathizers and even agents into key positions abroad, J "' " ~ 


There were other New Dealers whom John Barr might havej^i^ledoO^glor attack 
and many have wondered why he just happened to pick two Ne w York ers^of Jtaes&nd j . 

religious origin for links with Browder. 

Now labor finds that Barr's White Citizens Councils and the- Federation for 
Constitutional Government, led by Mississippi* s Senator James 0. Eastland, has- declared 
war on the unions. That's certainly their privilege sir, And they're taking full 
advantage of that privilege, sir* 

■• * ■> - .i , i * ■< o-'-rp 

lector Riesel Page 2 I ^^ 6 

That*s obvious not only from Eastland's blast but fiW a confidential report 
drawn up by the AFL-CI0»s H.L. Mitchell, president of the National Agricultural 
Workers Union. "Mitch" reports to his national leaders that the White Citizens 
thing has infiltrated southern unions. 

Mitchell reveals that in Charleston, S,C,, an organizing campaign in a .rubber 
fabric plant by the United Rubber Workers Union ended when the local unit of the 
White Citizens Council intervened. 

The Council hit the union with economic and social pressures. It threatened 
the white employes and warned them. to withdraw from the union since it was formed 
on a plant wide (industrial) basis, including both white and Negro members. 

Mitchell reports that in Chattanooga several months ago the local school board 
decided to integrate Negro and white children in the public schools. The Chattanooga 
AFL Central Labor Union supported the board 1 s decision to obey the law. Soon, the 
Tennessee Society to Maintain Segregation moved. It campaigned among local unions 
affiliated with the Central Labor Council, And the Central Labor Union had to 
rescind its support. 

Says Mitchell: 

"In several other southern cities local union officials upholding the traditions. 
of the labor movement in obeying the laws of the U,S» have also been ousted by move- 
ments engendered by the White Citizens Councils." 

All this the AFL-CIO national office has observed. But now, faced by a declara- 
tion of war on labor by the Federation for Constitutional Government, labor's" 
national chiefs are preparing to throw millions of dollars into their southerci 
organizing campaign. This may well mean diverting the funds from the November 

presidential drive* 




factor Riesel < Page 3 f 1/3/% 

Furthermore, the national labor leaders already are burning up. the 16ng distance 
wii'es telling intermediaries that they 1 11 sit on their hands and pocketbooks this 
presidential election if Adlai Stevenson, Gov* Avereft Harridan and Sefc* Estes. Kefauver 
. don*t launch a public battle on the White Citizens. Council movement. 
This civil war has just beguru 

(Copyright 19^6^ The Hall Syndicate, Inc t ) 






■y. Now comes word from Washington that| the 
Department of Justice is, probing the Citizen Obun- 
cils in Mississippi— at the instigation, of course, 
of the NAACP. 

Go right ahead and probe, Gen.Brownell. 

The chief thing you will find is that the Citizen 
Councils are organized for the purpose of fight- 
ing that infamous "Black Monday" decision of the 
United* States Supreme Court ordering integration 
of races in public schools arid colleges* 

The Citizen Councils are determined to use 
every weapon at their command to resist enforce- 
ment of that infringement on. the sacred personal 
rights of white citizens/ 

Nothing,' secret^ sinful* or" sinister behind the 
Movement. Lawful method^ of resistance will be 
used in every possible way. 

•jIHhose methodsr-fail other .plans,, will-be made. 
T|ose plans will all "depend on what the FedLral 
government will be planning to do; j 



S s 0d//f T/vf ° f l - " 






Mr. Tolson 
Mr, Nichi 
Mr. Boart] 
Mr. B^_. 

Mr. Mason 

Mr. Mohr._ ^ 

Mr. Pa«ona^a; . 
Mr. Roaen.._!pL V* 

Mr. Tamm I 

Mr. Kfiftsaa . 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Hollomun 

Miss Gandy. , 

O J A/ 

* A* S 

€>/ f & }*g*sjrj: * d>f* * 

y r A 





-**maf<m- t~ — ■■■■.— - - - / ^ * 

.NOT n^^C'ROjr^""' 





Sect. 1 Page 6 Col. 1 




JAN 51956 





0-19 (11-22-55) 











Mr. Tnlam / S.S 

Mr. Nichols f ^< ^ 
Mr. Boardman \ ^ j 
Mr. Belmont £$£/**»£ *** 

Mr. Mason 

Mr. Mohr \ ^ 

Mr. Parson 
Mr. Rosen 
Mr. Nease 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman 
Miss Gandy 

ties." iEife" 'didn't X name* 
counties: , / 


>; rfegrav p 

I BATOW ROUGE!; V<-^ of. Colled 

W.-fA! Mississippi' Negro leader People and- the Delta Si£m'a 
Isavs MissiRsirinrwKlfM. avi^o^Theta Sorority. '' 'r< \ 

says t Mississippi whites; are^cajS 
rying. on a campaign of^iolence 
and, economic^ reprisal'vaimed- at 
driving out a. half^ihiilion: Ne- 
groes ht the' .next. ITS'" years. - . " 
, Dr; t; R. m.! Howard.of Mound 
Bayou,, Miss.,, said' * yesterday 
white leaders- told him- they felt 
they could stall' off school inte- 
voting for about 10 yeaVsibefdre 
the Federal Goverrtmehfe, -moved 
in.4o. force it. 

Negro, gets, the unrestricted' bai- 
lot in his hand: There' will be 
s Sl??» ch ^nges made, hi Missis- 
sft>pfc\ he-toldl" an audience of 
more than .1,000 attending a 
rally jointly- sponsored by the 
10( ^^ttonal , Association? for 

Predicts Integrations 

And he * predicted, ''notwith- 
standing all the 1 violence; all' the 
repression;, ; all the threats, if 
Mississippi stays in the Unidh-^ 
and I'm not always sure, she's 
going.' to stay— she's going to 
integrate her school, systeS just 
like, any other State';" - ". 

Di> Howard ^ chief surgeon 

*rtSJ 3"' ~\„. : i "■'■:** -*> How ard -j^chief surgeon 

foJS? ^ k ?2 W ^ hat i °^ e - th * °f ^ e Fri endshlp : Cliriicin the 
wegm gets. the iinresi.Pfflf.Prt har- n,uwi»«n. n « rt i^**»,„j*.. ^^, 1 t: 9 

all-Negro community and presi- 
dent; of .the Regional Council^ of 
Negro- Leadership. ■ .,.." ".' .. 
■ \Bn Howard- said:;; int'egi ; ation 
petitions had been filed in five 
Mississippi counties ' .and "we 're 
ready to go to court uTTwocoun- 

There are 986,000 Negroes in 
, iississippi, he said/ and-' only 
19,000 Negro voters*'- \ 

. ; « t> , Favors. Challenge; ,i 
;• "The, Mississippi. Congressional 
delegation is. Based on the total 
population;" he continued/ "We 
think Congress' should challenge 
the entire delegation'' when* near- 
ly 48 per cent of the< .population* 
is barred! from, voting;" " 

Spearheading the economic 
drive,, he said, is the. Citizens* 
Council, "dedicated to^thepropq? 
sition of continuing segregation 
at all cost," 

Dr. Howard saici Negroes were 
fired from their jobs,, refused 
credit, forced to move, from vthenr 
houses, denied ginning facilitiei 
for their cotton for either trying 
to vote or signing, school ihtegrall 
tiqn-petitions. .,'-■ i 


126 FEB" 7 1956 

Wash. Post and 

Times Herald 

Wash. News- ' *^- 

Wash. Star ^ * 

N. Y. Herald 

N. Y. Mirror ^ 

N. Y. Daily News 

Daily Worker 

The Worker 

New Leader 

rw» v>W 2 1956 

Z 1356 





Mr. Tolson- \lf 
A Mr. Nicho\0i--/ 

Mri Mason . 

Mr. Mohr — 
Mr. Parsons -^^ 
Mr. Rosen J^^ 

Mr. Tamm 2 n 

Mr., Nease 

Mr. Winterrowd — 
TelJ. Room 



Mr. Mollom 
Miss Gandy, 







1/1— N1013P • > . . ■ 



-.) \{ 

l;v Moo 

\ / 


126 JAN 11 1956 



&.<& ±£Lz<±h^t<.^.. , ril j „ 


A '<■ 



.26 JAN 24 1956 


<*arieston. S , , 

SEARCH^ -»■■» *" v ''^ 

SEB*AU?P n . ' " ■ 

DEC 3 11955 

PHI - SAv/V;«H>r.L 


Mr. Tolsort 

Mr. Nichols 

Mr. IWrdman 

Mr. Belmont 




Mi-. x-*i»a L_rz_* 

Mr. TV.»mi_£r 

Mr. T i; ;e 

Mr. "Whiterrowd. 
Tele. Room- 


Li. .- : . i „ ; 

'r. M" hr „.^\ | 

" <"**° r «*«fr»» 

, Mr, Hoilotnan.„ 
JMlfes Gandy_ 



Justice Bept fcohis= 
Citizens Coy/ic/V AtfJT 

WASHINGTON, Dec. 2^«Mjhe 
Justice* ^Department assured a New 
York group, today it is, looking intoi 
the activities; of , the white Gitizerisj 
Councils in4tie>South. 

The /councils have beeri' 6rgan- 
ized to preserve racial .segregation, 
in" their areas. They developed- afV 
erjhe Supreme Court ruled: that 
segregated' public schools are un~ 
constitutional; '■ .. 

-The; department's 'announcement 
drew a tart comment from Gov, 
Hugh White at Jackson, Miss. #e - n 
called the department" a* ? 'bunch* of / ► 

meddlesome" jackasses'* who '/can't ' > A t nKn VS^, 
do; a. thing:"* > - ' pAUMG4Kp : 

The .New York City grpupv the 
Jewi'sfr-LaborCommittee, had writ- 
ten- Washington-, with .a request :for 
atf investigation 'Of ;the,*couhcils. 

Warre^ Olhey III, in charge, of 
criminal prosecutions for* the de- 
partment, and Arthur B. Caldwell, 
chief of its civit rights, sectjori, re- 

''The, activities t of the White Citi- 
zens Councils are receiving'the de- 
partment's-' careful" attention?, you 
may be assured that appropriate^ 
measures will be taken should .the; 
1 investigation establish the depart- 
ments- jurisdiction, and authority;" 
, Federal' laws- authorize ihe. de- 
partment to step- in' if, the authority 
of public officials or police is used 
to give- the authority of 'law to -any 
'deprivation 6f .civil' rights. Ordi- 
narily, the- federal government has, 
no power to intervene; in activities, 
of private citizeris^as. contrasted 
with public officialsTfin relation^ to 
civil rights. 

The mvt York Jewish Labor 
Committee, had made 'particular 
reference to the disappearancevof: 
Emmet Till, a;i,4-year old Chicago- 
Negro,, in the^ August *"wo'h>whis- 
tle" case iii Mississippi; the killing 1 
of a Negro minister in Mississippi: 
last, May and the shooing of still 
another 'Negro- in Mississippi last) 
i month. * 

0-19 (11-22-55) 

U. S. Looks Into Aetivit|e^ 
<jrf White Council! in Soulh i 

\ - By the ARsdcHted Press' . 

The , Justice Department has 
assured a New 1 York group it' is 
;l6bkin#1ntd the activities of the 
;Whiie vefiizens 'Co uncils, in the 
'south; 1 "' |™" 
\ The councils .have been or- 
ganized to* preserve racial segre- 
gation in their, areas. They de- 
veloped a^ter the Supreme Court 
riil€ d that, segregated .public 
schhois are -unconstitutional: 

Tliq department's* announce- 
ment drew a tart comment from 

Gov, Hugh White at JackSon, 
Miss.. H& called, the department 
a "bunch, of meddlesome/ jack- 
if who "can't dKk/thing:" 1 

The- New York City: group, the 
Jewish/ Labor Committee, had 
written Washington. : with a re- 
quest for an, investigation of the 
councils* . . 

W&rren* plney in, in charge 
of criminal prosecutions for the 
department, and Arthur B. Cald- 
well; chief- of its, civil rights sec- 
tion, replied: 

"The. activities of* the. White 
Citizens* Councils are receiving 
the department's, careful/ at- 
tention. You may be assured 
that appropriate measures will 
be taken should, t^he investigation 
establish the department's juris- 
diction and authority/' I 

Federal laws authorize the j ie- step in if the iai- 
thdrity of public officials or.jpo- 
lice is used to give the authority 
of law to any deprivation of 
civil rights; 

Mr, Tolson 

W. Nichols flflW 


ffi/Mt. Boardman 
. Belmont 
Mr. Mason — 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr, Parsons 
Mr. Rosen __ 
Mr.Tamm — 


Mr, Nease 1: 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman 


128 J*N \ * ^^ 

Wash. Post and 

Times Herald 

Wash, News 

Wash. Stcacjf^A^jS. 

N. Y. Herald _ 


N. Y. Mirror 

N. Y. Daily News 

Daily Worker 

The Worker 

New Leader 

,ff? '# 


nnto ' -.' »>) --■-■- 



:~— J 

0-19 (11-22-55) 



White Gouilcils; 

WASHINGTON,. Dec. 29' IM,~ 
she Justice Department said- tb- 
3 day- it is giving "careful at- 
tention^ to- activities of the 
white- lutizens^jtounciis furies, 
tioning' inlEeSputfiffca preserve^ 
racial segregation;, 

he department is investigate 
frig, whether any Federal civil 
rights statutes, the necessary 
base for any Federal interven- 
tion", have been, violated; 

Assistant Attorney Gen. Wai^; 
rea %Olney 3d, , in .charge of 
criminal prosecutions, and' Ar- 
thur B. Caldwell, chief of the 
civiL rights section;, gave- this: 
information to- the 'Jewish La- 
bor Committee of New York 
City, which, recently asked for 
an investigation: of the councils* 

The department ietter said;^ 
"You may eb assured that, ap* 
prppriate measures will he 
taekn; should the> investigation 
establish- the department's 
jurisdiction and authority." 

The- "Jewish- Labor Committee 
request referred, to, recent acts 
of. violence -..against Negroes' in 

. In Jackson*. Miss.j Gov. Hugh 
White called the Justice De-; 
par tment a "bunch of meddle- 
some, jackasses" and * added;- 
'iffito.lto'fr dd, a thing,, I' m no t 
very interested;" ' '<r«— - 


y\ f "Mr. Boardman 
0^¥ r - Belmont 
Mr. Mason _ 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons 
Mr. Rosen _ 


Mr. Nease _ 




Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman _ 
Miss Gandy 





■W JAN 12 1C56 

Wash. Post and . 

Times Herald 

Wash* News 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald 


N. Y. Mirror 

N. Y. Daily News 

Daily Worker 

The Worker 

New Leader 


n^ DEC SO 1955" 



0-19 (11-22-55) 



Citizen Units?/ 
'Actions Get ^ 
justice Study 

Associated Press 

The Justice Department said 
yesterday it was giving Care- 
ful attentiregpto activities ' of 
th^ /wbite^itizensl^Councils 
functioning in # 
the South to ; | 
preserve' racial 

The; Depart- 
ment is, investi- 
gating whether- 
any Federal 
c i v i 1 rights f t 
statutes, the 
necessary t base 
for any Federal 
have- been vio» 
lated. , * 

Assistant Attorney General 
Warren dlney III, in charge of 
criminal prosecutions, and Ar- 
thur B, Caldwell, chjef of the 
civil rights section, gave this. 
information to the Jewish La- 
bor Committee of New York; 
City, which recently asked for 
-ail investigation of the coun- 
cils. • 

The Department letter said: 

"The activities of . the white 
Citizens* Councils are receivr 
ing the- Department's 'careful 
attention. k You may be assured 
that appropriate measures will 
be taken should the .investiga- 
tion- establish the Department's 
jurisdiction and authority." 

Ordinarily, the Federal Gov- 
ernment cannot intervene in ac^ 
fivities of private citizens in 
relation to. civil rights. However, 
the Federal statutes provide 
for, such .intervention if the 
authority* of : 'public, officials or 
police 1 are , employed to give 
auUlprity of law to any depriva- 
.tiotfof ciwl rights. 

r. Tolsoj 

, Mr. Boardman 

Gy$^tyt. Belmont 

Mr* Mason - 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons 
Mr. Rosen 
Mr. Nease 

./' ' 


Mr. Wincerrowd 
Tele. Room — 
Mr. Holloman — 
Miss Gandy — 

, Uumg. 

^0j l $' 


Wash. Post and . 

Times Herald 

Wash. News 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald-^. 

N. Y. Mirror 


N. Y. Daily News 

Daily Worker 

The Worker 

New Leader 

iw flfcli»u«»» 




e. " 



y- ! 


S^ <t CiWzens Councils 

A, slater of speakers, tfeaded' fcy 
Sen, James: 0.. Eastiarid: XDMsst 
wjll, address a; .statewide 'H\M of. 
the South Carolina^ Assm qf Gitt 
zens Councils ,here Jan;' 26. . . 

The, organization was. established 

to -oppose mixing of- the' £apes T ' 

Eastland is backing, .a /drive io> 

.coordinate/ Various >: Sdutnern'i pro-; 

"segregation forces into one' politic 

cal force,, ; ; > ] * " 

An organization,, the* Federation: 
for Constitutional Government has' 
heenr formed. with that purpbseuh 
mind. Twelve Southern' stales were- 
represented at the Memphis^ Teiin., 
meeting at which the alliance came 
into being. * . ' 

IJACKSON, Mlsjs; (UB)^ Gov. 
%gh White declared, today: that 
M|ssissippi !s pro-segregation; iyhite 

r ;ces here; shows increased^bvS 

Citizens' Councils; ; hav e .nothihl- to 
hide, from Justice Department 
^stigator's^whont he' called pi... 
bunch of- meddlesome jackasseS," 
[ -A Report; that, the Justice- E»epar> 
ment has th e organizations under 
observation 1 to determine whether 
an: investigation, :is< catted for /did 
not v cause- alarm, among segrei^ 
tiqn leaders here. 
;W? r W ^ ht - Sr, r spokesman for, 
,tne Jacksori council,, largest of the 
more,;,, than -200, chapters in 'the 
■state, ;sa$he "welcomed** /the in? 
Vestigation, He was seconded in 
his statement by W. J. Simmons/ 
state .administrator for- the eotin- 

Mississippi's; outgoing gpverfe 

\v§s more outspoken, however; fe 

said the "department '"'can't do l l a 

thing. They're just a buhchiV 

[meddlesome jackasses." ' 

Mi\ Tolson. 

Mr, Nicbuls . 

Mr. Boardman 

Mr. Bohnont 

Mr. jtf.- * :x 

Mr. M'/hr „ 

Mr. PaiT^ffl • j 

Mr. R*~,. n 7C£ . 

I Mr. Tnmnu 

Mr. K in 

j Mr. Y/;:Herrowd„ 

I Tele, ftoom 

i Mr. HoIIoman 

126 jan 24 me 




0-19 (7-8-55) 

mt on 

J^Z^SEttt- Sl^Pftaent declared. thJWnap- 
Hon, assured the JLC "SI annm W rf" ^i° f , C,int0 " Melto ">l 

^srw^^TOL? aGlendora cotto * *■•'> 

uithority." J«^aicaon and jaay ot these crimes; . 

:jhe ^stiee Dent's Jj$Sfig KntttS 'i? £» 
.eshgahpn? of Mississippi ^M «; of the Will fe" 
■egan. after- the May 7, 1955, kd£j^^^P;wh«* Activities 

It lm -P lre d- much of the anK I 

to the Senate Internal SeSuriS 

rrli^W " i ««.ougn c>ubc6mmitee is sHH ,■„„- * \^ 
Si X a ? Ing Ia ^ Au S^t of eMen. James O k* i W^red;) 
ar-o]<\ Lamar Smith oit>tl^ uZl of rid «„i« ^ t,and ' chairman 

ntee voters. T 9D *f / •,, , 

Later in the same month; tliei if ''*'''? A " * r '.?'& 

o~~ ,~... „. ivxiMuisjpp,. ten , 0I 

■egan after- the May 7, 1955, kill- 


Mr, Tolson 

Mr. Boardman 
Mr. Nichols _ 
Mr. Belmont 

Mr. Harbo 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons 
Mr. Rosen __ 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoo 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman _ 
Miss Gandy 

V / 

Times Herald ■ 

Wash. News 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald 

N. Y. Mirror 

Daily Worker fT 

The Worker 

New Leader 

Date s^-Jf^S - 












^ap?' : Gfe's^Scr.u-finy, 



sure? if the/situation 'wteH 
rants,, according to. a jette'rfe. 

L^or-'CTojiimittee;' -■: ' f K i 

B-feldwell; chief of-,thedS 

I . ."Yoii: may Be assiired 4lftVl 

.nsciiction- and. authoritv> ■ tt-J 
letter, ^ddfessgd^oXdb^t | 

IS 'J/' 3 PP r 'CommittG-e;;said' "'■ 

ifodfeis 9 the yfa* -'*mm 

.? MAH'i^''" 

- Mr, Tdson_ 

J Mr. Nijhoh 

it Mr, TKir-'Y.ian.™. 
: j Mr. Bdmonk 
1 Mr. ;:• '. lx Z 
J Mr. M^hr. U 

. K>. V -;«"rrowd_ | 




yog'- 34z$?„/i 

wot ascd^'eip"* 

i* , £K',,*I^Kt5Bt , «WfWw^»«< 

0-19 (11-22-55) 


White Groups 

A Si Qiik in Souti 

j By Hi.e.A5So'clated Press '■ \- 

' fnl^./P^^'^^artment'' safe 
today jt 1? .givifag„ ".daxejfaLaten" 

Sag ■ t?l? ?! , ,?««- 

«®s^statijtes 1 i L the. Hetesiry 

cton,,; gave' Deeri- yiolatig t^^'^ ' 
Assistant . Atteney^vdeneral 

ginnnaL, prosecutions,-" and Ar- 

J^^/ectiori, gave-this in- 
formation- to the Jewish Labor] 
Committee, of- New York cifv 
wJjjlfh recently asked for 'an X' 
vejltigation of the councils j 
.jF? «°n»nitt6e request rl- recent reported acts b 
ividlence against Negroes in Mis 
sissippi.. . ■ - >• ■ 




} t Mr. Tolson 

Mr. Boardman ^C^ 
^. Belmont _(^J^ 

Mr, Mason 

Mr. Mohr 


Mr. Parsoi 

Mr. Rose 


Mr. Nease 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room/ ^^ 

Mr. Hollomajn / T ^ 

Miss Gandj /I|U 





12*6 JAN 4 1956 

Wash. Post and 

Times Herald 

Wash. News 

Wash. Star />V&^ Ah f O 
N. Y. Herald 


N. Y. Mirror 

N. Y. Daily News 

Daily Worker 

The Worker 

New Leader 


nfft » dec masr 

Mr. T< _ 

Mr. 4%m&s£l 

Mr, J^pardman^! & 

Mr. Mason 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons 

Mr. Roson 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. N^.33 ...... 

Mr. Whiterrowd- 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman 

Miss Gandy 



Jovemor's Blast Follows 
fedosure U.S. To Probe 
StateV Citizens Councils 

JeojK, Miss., chapter of the NationM 
[Association for the Advancement! 
of Colored People. \t ' 

L^^L* grocer > was wounded 
cLf r ab ?°f? en and arm b y b «ck- 
snot fired through his store win- 

°3 from an automobile. 

The FBI launched an inquiry 
soon after the November shooting 
to determine whether any federal! 
laws were violated. ! 

m^^t^Tfhr^ Was j? in §^^ has launched anl 

inyesgatzon of the Citizens Councils'in Mississippi. -. — w ^ ^ mmm 

Wy to t£ ™ * 5"°* ^ Governor' commented fc^^ ^M™ 
rTf 7 7 .? .* he t Dail y Ne ws. "I'm Dot very interested [ char ^ ed hQ had been murdered be! 
Th&ie just a bunch of meddlesome > jack^? ™S^ °^ s * AACP acttwS. 

Officials nf tfm ^«fi n « r. .rk,,.../ . , ^ ^TTl The NAACP charged- that the 

IthtlfT 7 °I . Citi2e ^ Council of 

Citizens O^^^^Zpi TJ^^S^M 
department's careful attention. I Till nf nhS°Il™? tt L ?™& 

"You may be assured that ap- 
propriate measures will be taken, 
should the investigation establish 1 


!!S! 5 *iT"i.**« "* MS ^ M * aeuL1 uir con- 
timea tnat the inquiry was going 
ttward and that "appropriate" may be taken. 
They refused further comment, 
qwever, on a letter disclosing the 
destination signed by Arthur B. 
aJdwelfc chief of the Civil Eights 

The letter was made public Wed* 
ssday an New York by the Jewish 
abor Committee, which had asked 
1 immediate- inyestigationf of 
e Citizens Councils. i 




pre 1 Co^s, k -A 

Tin «* --**•«*-»« j^mmeic .Louis 
Jf R L Ch T Cag0 andthe "annler" 
;crim1s aS ^ as other 

STT MH ? lllvesu sation establish)!' At his home in PnwirA c 

K n S' ment?s jurisdict ™ Hlss^^SMSAft 

The;New York comniittee' spe- !«on g£ pol£?M^ *!& 

S**; a M ed the de P^toent to hokWS£ti™tS 
Ioojcjntp the shopting of Gus derway. lnves ra»i ,«ffl^ 
Courts; 65^ president of the "Mr 


* s : r 


M 1 


SEftlALIiEfl. Flt£0 * 






H W hat About, EfAACBfr. - i 

"M$? Qem r ejecfr Joe <Pattcrsonu 
suggested' thht- if the- Justice De-' 
)artment investigates the Citizens 1 
Councils- it should, investigate the, 
National;* Association, for the Ad-! 
irancement of. 'Colored Pebple inf 

"So far, as- 1 know,"' tattersohi 
iaidi "the NAACP activities ara ; 
more directed toward inciting dis«s 
satisfaction and hard feelings b'e^ 
tween the races than any organ- 
ization I know of/* : 

"The* Justice Department has 
never seen fit to talk with this of- 
fice about any; such investigation/* , 
he said; "I think we're as inters 
ested in seeing that laws in Missis, 
sippprare enforced as the Justice 

"If the Justice Department is in- 
terested," Patterson continued, "it 
should talk with the high-class gen- 
tlemenhvho'liead jhe Citizens Coun- 
cils, in this 4 state/* 

"They have hide," he 

Ellis Wright Sr #> president of 
the- Jackson Citizens Council, said 
hjs organization "has no fear- of 
any investigation/* ' - 

/'The. world knWs what weVe' 
dointf," Wright said. "And it Jknfe 
how) we're, doing, it. We tiavetfnct! 
secrets*"- ^i 



/' I'- 

■; / 

'. *) r 



1 * 



'hr _ 

prate; fcails |aa»t*$?#j{ ■, 

pheyfw imt a( buucfe of meddlesonie Uckasie^H * ■ •• - 
ft; Officials o* s the Justice; Depart,!*"": — "■, ' ,. , .•*., ' r '"--\: J V V V 
Snent's -Civil Rights section con- Assocfation for' tfu?c Advancement 
frmed thatr the inquiry Hvas 'going fat Colored Peo* ,• T ~ 

'l Mr. :1 

J | Mr. WI.'t?.Towd. " 

* f Mr. 

-.vIish Gladys 


[measures 1 ' may fa© taken. ' I m the abdomen and arm' by buck" 

|The^ refused furthe* comment J $°$ fire d through, hk stores win* 
However* on ajetter afcelosina5tHe"*2f'* w a* ^utomobfler , 

section* .,. 

| The letted was made public Wed4 la ™L w ? r ? ^tei' , 
®esda^teKevv York by .the Jewish i . la ° 01t commitWs^requeU 

pe- Citizens Councils, . " ^minister, after an aiijtf accident 
l5 aIdv ^ advised,, the. Jewish JHLPiWl?** fe*fe* have 
[|roup; T'The activlUes of the White r^^^^a^beemmurderedi b& 


126. JAN 24 i056 

KJTOlii i 

ppopriate; measures' will be taken , fc ^ state Jed to the "wanton" Ml£ 
^ouldthetanvestigatio^ establish %& °[ J4-year>oId Emihett Louf 
the- departments Jurisdiction, and *?\?* Chicago and; foeVWnW 
i authority/' T * of Bev* jLee *- -■«*• — 1 

fiTW| Ne^York committee' spe* crime*. 
Cificlllv asked* Hirt.H*-— * -■■■•' At- ^ 

' l ^^Association of Citizens' Councils 

or Mis£is ; sippi ^ -^ 

Internal "Security -/L ~^~" < \ 

1CJ5-492 (Bureau filfe ^105-342371/ 
The Jackson Daily NeVs ^C - 

Jackson, r.Losissippi " " f~^ v 

DoceMber ,;0 iq.^j"' 




( ,« * j ^ > 

> ^ *t* r< 

^ i. fw 

whae About NMCif 7 

gates «ie Citizens! 

National Association for th? avt 

fization I know of*' 

<&re as; inter- 

te'fein- this state.'* , 

laid- 6y * Ve notilib K-to hide/' H* 

M? Jw*W fcnows what Wn? 

lf/1' <tjt^j *£, • . ^ ! 

* ,-;',"■■ 

■? , 

/ /* 




^tiling to Hide' From B&i 

•.,,.,**■#* s 5S e tme ' ■^ , - Hu * L - WMte can «l & JusUce DepS'ent officials "a 
S&„^S£E^5^ e l OT *»-»»'- V*>.' disced W purpose I 

)Ur organization many tinf s. 
JKe will, co-operate with the 
fustice : Department in v aiiy 
#ay possible/' 

Wright sai(J his. first knowledge 
)f the probe -was, in. 'a news story, 

"They've not asked for any of 
"mr records or any other informa- 
ioiv yet," he asserted. - * t 

The federal inquiry was an- 
nounced, in the' department's reply 
;o- a letter from the Jewish Labor 
Committee; seeking* .am investiga- 
ipn of the white:-, councils. 

Replying to the request, Arthur 
3... Caldwell, chief of the depart- 
nent's civil* rights section/ told 
he? New .York group : \ ; 
: "Tfie ^activities; of the' white ciU 
zeris councils are-, ^e/deiving, the 
lepartment's. careful attention, 

"You may, be assured; that ap. 
>ropriate measures will be taken 
hould the investigation establish 
he department's, jurisdiction and 
iuthority," s 

Specifically-, the JLC sought hv 
uiries into- the gun wounding of 
tos Courts;,. 65-year-old president 
f the\Belzorii chapter of the Na- 
ional Association* for the Advancem- 
ent of Colored' People,- and the 
ajntroversial death of Bev. G. Iff. 

(See wklGHT on Page'lOA)f 

If right . . . 

Lee, a Belzoni Negro minister. 

Lee was found dead* after an 
auto accident near Belzoni !ast : 
spring. A metal object was found: 
*n. his jaw. - , \ 

Wright said the citizens coun- 
cils have nothing to fear from the 
Justice probe. 

He also praised the- campaign 
started at Memphis yesterday to 
unify all pro-segregation organi- 
zations in the South. 
, /'This unification will mean a 
:strcnger voice of the ' people ain 
preserving our Southern wayjof 
life*" Wright asserted. x J 


m JAK 20 


Mr. Tolson 

Mr. Nichols 

Mr. Bojirdman 

Mr. Belmont 

Mr. M-i-.-.i . 

I Mr. Mohr - __. 

| Mr. Pa'-^jw. 
Mr. Po.-n/nSfcL 

1 Mr. Tamm „#. I 

I Mr. V.-as" 

J Mr. \Vmterrowd~ 
Tele. Room 







ge 1 Cols. 5-7 




f J 






juqj! ^- NEW ORLE ANS 




y or ^ 

Y/ * Boardmai 
;j Mr. Nic^y 

Mr. Belmont 

Mr. Harbo 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parson 

Mr.R«$ € 

Mr. Tami 

Mr. Sizoi 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman 
Miss Gandy _ 

TELEGRAMS %£&?&£* .«HM»Or THE BAABfi nr *u» "»*.».* • 

W*T°l»^s*wS OTHER* P81MTS%ir^ d F M || r A K T IH MISSISSIPPI "rNDIW 

\/o!> . -y/. .'7-/-/ 


^ ,, y -• ' 7;,. ' ,;,; ia . jan ! !9 ' 5 



0-19 (7-8-55) 



_ TAKING advantage of the govenrnent's apathy in the face- of open defiance 
end. law,, a grou^pf pohtical. racists, led, by Sen,Jahies:Q Eastland .(Miss), has 

ed a movement to nuMy" federal autI } ority. in the Southern states, the ^et" 
groups is the 14rh Amendment to • -^» • o 

the IL S., Constitution which bars*, 
states from denying full rights to 
citizens- because of "race,, creed, 
color,. or previous conditioaof servi- 
tude, ' * , \ , , 

More than a week ago Eastland, 
joined by Rep. John Bell Williams. 
(D-Miss) and' Mississippi Circuit 
Judge Thomas P< Brady, called on 
Mississippi and other southern 
•states to consider steps, to declare 
null- and void all* desegregation 
court 'decisions* and orders.- the 
Fourteenth Amendment* Eastland 
charged* ."was. fraudulently pro- 
cured and is illegal;"; He termed 
the Supreme Court's desegregation 
decision "tyrannous"; and based 
uppn "left wing sociologists" opin- 
ions rather than law. - 

' , *■/.," 

THIS time Eastland;, who' is, 
considered the leader, of thos^e or- 
ganized political! racists pledged to 
maintain Negroes in- second class 
citizenship, actually followed die 
lead of Virginia; Coy. Thomas k 
Stanley of Virginia had advanced ; 
the idea, some weeks ago in> con- 
nection with proposals he is push- 
ing ;to evade the -high court's de- 
segregation/ order, Both the Vir- 
ginia Governor aiid Eastland go 
back to Thomas Jefferson's -3#98f 
fight against the -alien, and sedition 
laws for their precedents, 

Jefferson- acted in the interest of 
die people against .a reactionary 
Congressional act aimed at limit- 
ng Constitutional rights. Eastland,. 
>n the other hand;,, is proposing to 
nake null and void sections of the 
Constitution establishing: full, citi- 
-enship rights for Negroes. 

Governor-elect } t R Coleman oB 
vfississippi disagreed with, East- 
and; calling the "nullification" pro- 

"thehsjs no way tq nullify es- 
:ept by secession and the state con, 
titution prohibits that," Colt>qW 


Mr, Tolson 

Mr. Boardman 
Mr. Nichols __ 
Mr. Belmont _ 

Mr. Harbo 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons __ 

Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoo 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman _ 
Miss Gandy 

/ /¥> 


126 JAN 9 1956 

t Wash. Post and 
■' Times Herald 

Wash. News 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald _ 

N, Y. Mirror 

Daily Worker 
The Worker _ 
New Leader . 





DEO % 5 UK>5. 

pp-19, (7-8-55) 

L-- ... J 

Mr. Tolson 

Mr. Boardman 
Mr. Nichols __ 
Mr. Belmont _ 

Mr. Harbo 

Mr, Mohr 

Mr. Parsons __ 

Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoo 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman _ 
Miss Gandy 

COLEMAN' disagreed only with 
E&tkndV tactics, for the essence- 
ofita Governor-elects legislative 
propoWs to thwart attWpts, to cle- 
, segregate amounts in fiM to ^nulli- 
fication* - .*' * 

Coleman would make it a state 
crime for a federal officer to - atr 
tempt to enforce an anti-segrega- 
tion law or order in Mississippi. 
And he would make it impossible 
for an attorney who represents 
clients, pressing, for integration to 
practice law in Mississippi. 

The ultimate result of all the. 
Dixiecrat proposals, to evade the I 
desegregation, ruling, if.they^ are 
successfully pursued; would be- to 
place the. power to interpret the 
Constitution in the hands of the 48 
states. Citizens of the United 
States would- have constitutional 
guarantees only to the extent of the . . 

interpretation- pf such rights' in gtfU&fetfds for. the racists throughout 

various states. 

■ * 
% THE "nullification" proposal is- 
Eastland's latest and most danger- 
ous. He first called for a South- 
wide 'organization which would 
make propaganda for the right to 
maintain- Negro second class citi- 
zenship. That proposal was imme- 
diately taken up by the various 
components oi> the die-hard rac- 
ist -movement, including' Sen. J. 
Strom Thurmond (C-S. C), Gov. 
Marvin Griffin of Georgia and a 
number of other Congressmen and 
state officials. Eastland then pro j 
posed' tliat^ southern state govern 
ments ban together and pool por- 
tions of their tax monies in the 

the country^ 

In Virginia, Georgia, Mississippi 
.■and South Carolina Negroes have 
been- warned of "dire conse- 
quences" if they push, enforcement 
j.of the desegregation laws. The 
I Jackson Daily New*, Eastland's 
'•mouthpicoe-, had this to say about 
the issue oniJee. 14,. after denying 
that four Negro murders- were due 
to integration: , ■ 

"The real danger of -bjoocC spill- 
ing because of integration wilt hot 
come until serious efforts are made 
to force Negro children into- white 

And the Daily Nevys, in a letter 
issiie, characterized Eastland's fight 
against the Supreme- Court as iol- 
figbt to evade the Supreme; CoujggJ^W- j rt - a bold-faced front-page 
d&m*&?*&f& purpose of this- -drove- Editorial: ' ' 
^^gag^and *tfaidi$.was „ lo win 1 ' 

"In brief, this is a fight 
Anglo-Saxon supremacy* J 

"TKis government was c/eated: 
by white, men? and women. 

"It has-been made a great na- 
tion byr White men and' women." 

Legislation in ^support ol this 
philosophy is ready fordntroduction 
jn both; the Vifghiia and Missis- 
sippi legislatures, in January. And 
Eastland has pledged to team with 
his. cojleague in the : U; S. House 
of Bepreserrtatives, Jbhn, Bell Wit 
Hams,, to get something, started in 
this direction in Congress. 

There' is nodiing on the horizon 
.from the federal government or 
from national political Ieaders^to 
match this gathering of un- Ameri- 
cans preparing, a . gang-tip Against* 
the Constitution and federal auv 



T^vq thousand NegfP farnSi^ in tne-rich 'Deife Mississ;pjp?viace' aihibst cei'tain* starvation 
mtxt sprfog, F&f Half a century, t&ey.h^ye^beeri;; traditionally ;gGmg ; to ^the white Batiks i n tne 

„ _. T agitation' no mbnejrds; Available to them; There will, be no cotton Crjpp,„_^ „„__ 

fariherSj and withoiit cottp** .the^jaiiitkei thousand^ pf^wbrkers \Mhq &b$end* 6n]£h6m facef 
actual desperate stravatioit> ' „_!. M['^ : r :^ M^. M ^ ».,. A;. _: - A 
Hey©; -is » • the- moat, »dramati&.taxTu f^- #i' '^Wpeii' I#Heite 

There are* a, million Negroes in' 
Mississippi., Right in, this Delta, re- 
gion where these farmers are!] 
ther^ are hundreds of mbusands of 
Negroes; many of them prosperous 
farmers. anaV Industrial workers.. 
But they have never Hbuilt up big 

tand strong- ; bariirihgr dr. other fin? 

I anciai institutions of. their own; 

\ Now- .a Negro "boy- is ,. lynched; 
* - r two- dither 1 colored people 1 are killr 

led, Negroes, protest against „, the-, 
deaths and try to .vote as -one* 

]ixte$$$:oi #fcote# tl and the, ,;white* 

tb / a^'^»'ric?^'tfe #>: forc^ptar-: 

V^^li'P* v^ ' l'^ ' ^VV * ' V--' A ' • > l!i ' 'v ^V?T. ' 

*vation>on ^whols peopje^ • u ~ .~^ 

> It Is. not an, isolated examples- 
even though it is ; the; "most dram-- 
atic; The -same .thing is happen- 
ing in South Carolina on; a wider 
spread: scale; White" banks answ- 
ered the Supreme Court's, order toJ 
end discrimination- in the schools? 
with a^ 'freeze-uD* iji the^r business: 
relations, with, colored peopled Stare 
vatipnj want and- desperation re- 
sult, , . 

; In, Alabama the picture* js« tne] 
same;, it has been tried* at other 
times in other areas., it is< the' 
crowing injury added to- iieople* 
who have not had the foresight to,^ 
establish -financial, institutions of' 
their dwn-^tp protect tftemselyes 
against "the stresses and- strains^ 
that others anight occasionally 
seek to, clamp upon them.. , 

But while 'the- examples of Miss-' 
issippl and Soutli Carolina are the; 
•mnftf ,'h o r rj ble;. they are not the 
closest to us/, here in Cle' frEla i i e l ifr * « 


Mr. Tolson 

Mr. Nichols 

Mr. Boardman— / 
Mr. BelmontJ^L. 
<Mv, Mas.^n . 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons. 
Mr. Rosen.. 
Mr. Tamia.. 

Mr. Mease 

Mr. Wlntorrowd- 
Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman- 
Miss Gandy.. 


&ftjtiiiloh-;>| -m^j 

gregs; .$£4 con^iuiity:ii^J(niridi?i^ 
population. ,f <" ' — -., >. -;-^ 

There< is one difference in. the 
Cleveland 1 story,, however: it -has; 
* a 'happy ending;,' not. an ending in- 
[the strict sense of the word 1 , but 
the stofy has reached; the point 
wher£ a solution of .the, :prqblem? 
has 'already been begun— with, the: 
:use of \a Negro, Ranking' institution 
to. break the race-hate bottlenecks; 
set, up. By other bankers. 

Here, hi a nutshell^ is the Clever! 
land story of a-banking' miracle; 
/For ma w y ; f yo gfrs- Negroes- iir 
Cleveland: lived in a, rigid, ghetto- 
area; it" was' largely centered in. 
Me .Central- Area, with a small'' 
;. settlement in 3VitV Pleasant; a lew:* 
'dozen, families, on. the West Side, 
;a.\ 'handful- in the :. Lee Rd, area, 
^and* an occasional lew breaking: 
ajito the Gleriviile area. 
'* . * Population Spread* 

' Th'eii \the Bienville * and; Hough 
'areas began to* add colored famil-* 
;ies~ here and there as the; Negroi 
^populatipn^pf #ie city gained; -Dy 1 
leaps arid, bounds. " And strange: 
;st6ries 'began, to W .heard., * :Re|& 
estate men complained ihat/bafnks, 
w ;uld not finance their mortgage: 
loans 1$ the house happened to be; 
the. ieasjb 'bit- beyondi. the ''Negrpi 
^boundaries' established,, %■ ,; tfa& 

DECEB.1BER 2U, 19^5 


126 JAN 11 1956 







K ,.- 



V /»v 


(-feye#fc%ation tracked dqjT^hesd 
complaints almost entirely to oni 
of the big bank-ing concerns as the- 
center of the trouble; *This big- 
.bank was a leader in* the: local; 
banking ^cehe/It set .policies that; 
the smaller banks did not^ dare op-, 
.jpose-T-for fear of reprisals from 
the big- bank. ^ 

Real estate men made still an^ 
other complaint. "There is> map; 1 
in their office/ 1 several of them 
reported 5 , "on- which there arei 
heavy lines drawn. Inside thes$ 
boundary lihes Negro- mortgages! 
will be/ handled., If you tr)$r to fhvj 
ance tiie purchase of a house be-! 
yond these lines, this, bank won't! 
accommodate you; and nine times l 
out of ten,: the others/ woh^t eith- 
er^'- . -_ - 
Practice There 
No picture- was ever taken of 
the; map, But it was" certainly re- 
ported, And, the practice certainly 
viid follow shcl* "a principle. Or 
lack of principal. Within the last, 
three years; this 'big 1 -banks", refused- 
to. handle- mortgage loans* across* 
Sf. Clair Avenue in the Glenville 
area; they' turned, 'down mdrtgages 
t East of Parkwood. Drive* in the 
isanie area. ■, - ' J ** 
f; ,q%K^M^q^«^^iEiL , :if Nt 

#ms^;<'0mer*banks, 7 iven savings 
■dig loan institutions, did-.not dare 
go/ against the wishes of the. big 

Then a Negro 'insurance com- 
pany stepped forward" witji i-tHie.' 
^necessary money. The home, was 
bought. A few months later, Clav|- 
Jand saw the opening of this, sec- 
tion- of the state's only Negro own- 
ed and operated savings and loan 
in stitution; interestingly, ,an out- 
growth orthat insurance i icaffls£«ttJ#. ] 

^ . T he Iiiiie Crack s^ 

xi was'a matter only of' WUtik* 
beipre a sharp crack was seen in. 
the 'Hold-the-Negro? line of the 
banks; The smaller banks cracked 
first;, bankers- are far-sighted men; 
and they knew that either tthey 
could; lend the money; or they 
would' soori; see Negroes handling, 
thr mortgage loans that Negroes 
needed to buy homes., They saw 
the light;, the line broke; 

Last Summer a well known 
Cleveland businessman arid or- 
ganizational figure went to the Big, 
Bank- which had- held up- Negro 
advancement - for sq many years, 
. nd happened to drop the informal 
tion that he w#s> buying lots and 
building, two* : houses' near the 
Shaker Heights* line— formerly ta- 
boo territory to; the big bank. He- 
said he was going to .another bank 
for the money. 

"There -is no need for you to do 
that," the* Big Bank told him! 
"wear, be happy to handle those 
mortgages." The line was broken.,] 
Forever, it is'very likely. j 

' The Reason 
And it was broken because a Ne- 
gro 1 'financial institution had: ■ ap- 
peared on* the Cleveland scene; the 
(bankers were served notice that 
jit they did not. appreciate their; 
[huge Negro volume of business, 
[■the- Negroes, of Cleveland could 
| and would? do something about it. 
This; was/ the Cleveland, Ohio 
story.. It differs frbm that or 
Cleveland, Miss. It differs sharply 
in one respect; in Cleveland -Ohio- 
they now have a financial institu- 
tion of their own. It would be hard 
to starve any group Which, invests 
its money in its own welfare and- 

It is the story of what Cleveland^ 
has already profited and may ef 
pect to profit many times ove: 
from the establishment of the : 
Quincy Savings and toan- Com- 
pany three years ago— %u> ihstitu?, 
tion that is already approaching 
the two-million-dollar mark in 

"&JHfisL, Week: Negro, Banking 
hTtWed States:) #***'■■ 







Coleman to Defy" Miss* 
.MuUficqffoife- threat; \, 

JA&SON, Miss; ^'(ANM — . 
jphree. x>i x Mississippi's leading 
/white supremacists have met ear- 
ly opposition in their' bid to,- south- 
ern states; to "nullify" the anti- 
segregation decisions of thff U. S. 
.Supreme Courts, \. * " ' 

■Governor-elect, X. £; ; Coleman 
has 1 rejected 1 their proposal,, de- 
claring' .that "there Ik n^ way; to 1 
nullify except' by secession"" from- 
the Union,, "and the^state 'Constt- ' 
tutiohi prohibits that'* 

.Ccfeman replied J:o> ^phmpft 
iftade Monday bjr Sen, Barnes jtt 
Atfanft {BrMiss*-); Hep* JchJ? 
I BeHAviUiams; (E)-Misi), ; and Kjiss 
|issipi -Gircui^ Judge Tom Brafly^ 

126 JAN 24 ro56 


RJ& REC'O — -^ 
HQW FORW,, —« 
BY <^4 





■0-19 (7-8-55) 

A' W} s$ & S&J<?/Jj# / 

Mr. Tolson 

Mr. Boardman 
Mr. Nichols _ 
Mr. Belmont — 

Mr. Harbo J. 

Mr. Mohr * 

Mr. Parsons _ 

Mr. IJos'en 


"Mr. Sizdo ■_ 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room _ 

Mr. Holloman _ 
Miss Gandy , 

14th . _, VbU 

chairman pf 4\q Senate Subcom-r . - — r- . -- - ... 

nutted on Internal Security,; would! w ' ^%^'^Y intended^' 

g effect, destroy the -power of the 

U. S. Constttutidiv an£ XL § Jkw to 

guarahfep the sedulity if B. -,s. 

citizens* in states : which followed* 

bis advice, 

Most; ncavsp»pers.barried only a 
?aragraph,or ts^onOEafitland^ ,pr^ 
posals made last Monday .in Jack- 
?on ? Miss*, thereby playing dowri\ 
their importance. It could : .have 1 

TherdecMori^are-based upon 
;tne \ V ntings;pfiaefcwing;socioibgists 
\ ant| not fipoii constitutional: rules 
ox Jaw* andfcttestroy constitutional 
.guarantee* -wlicR-Aave- bee* in 
existence for over: 80 years;, 
Eastland cites instances^ all 

T? W ^f iviI ^ ar - wherein- 
states defied or. sought- to. defv 

.• I 11 ? 1 *? 11 ? 6 Gb ™t and; federal 

have read M statement, in which. 
'JS.i?' asi ^diV 'Jffep. John Bell 

Ji dge Ihpniaff £ .Brady dl Brook- 
Mvehi. Mis.s., fcx see< whether' he i<r 
m tp^erye ah that .body. 
( As.-fo- the^objective^bf Ea$tTand,> 

■Seqatois tfaithfciL spokesman,. exhV 
-tonalized^as follows dri'Dec. 1-fi 

^ v « '^ii-"M»LHuw. ^ coma* .nave .- - y»i^mc oourr ana teueruj 
oeen^infeh-ed/fro^^^ Carolina: ?in 1882; he 

Jiat? Eastknd piily advised study- j ^y P^s^ a: oiuilifeation prdi 

ng the .question M "nullification;-'' 
in fact,, Eastland called for action*, 
Among, pie reasons' for 'h& ,pi?o, 
>0sab-wliidi stop, just, short; o£ 
icturf secession-Eastland includ- 
*d the following; 

1 *- *^he Fourteenth' Amendment 
ruder \yhich the- 'tyrannous, deci- 
10ns i(of the U.S. Supreme Sourt 
gainst sebregated schooWA. iv. 
j.) were rendered was TraudiuW- 
r pi'opurcci/ and is, illegals " 
; ■•^'Tfi.e 'tyrannous -decisions* rcn- 
ered under the inrerpl-etation of 
be Fourteenth Amendment pro- 

nance, against, a, tariff law;, and hi 
^Jes the Hartford 'Gbhvention .rf 
•XpJ.4. ., » 

In ; evei;rtsiiclt case the: %iU 
Jifierij \vet& either • overruled M : 
the- Supreme Qoiut.or.were forced 
to repeal their ordinances. The 
■one exception. waV the state laws 
'Cited by r Eastland aimed M pro- 
tecting runaway slaves; Public 
opimoa was, too strong in Support 
or these -measures. ..■ ,"**,- 

"But Easiiatid's, words .are -never- 
theless important beacuse Jie is a. 
u. 5. Senator, ft has not been^ 
■recorded jitat Eastjand, when he 

thrje Negraes; fa Mississippi* and 
thepshootihg; of another j says'r^e-, 
,gr|es- Jiaye riot been dejpriv^d-of 
\ jrjpr charflghts-yet-.. Then miries 
,, V tfi^ "Qpeh-faped -thre^; ' 3 /.^ 
f f f 'The' real, danger .of ^Sloo^ 1 spilt' 
1 mg; because of the integration de^ 
i cislou will not come until, serious 
ieffprts- are iriade* fo force' Negro; 
children into) ^vliite :schools*^ ! '; 
'Many of Eastland's- .proposalii 
: .couched" in legal fexiguage; are at 
! ready in- shape for ;the- January, 
l rnceb*ng of ;the state; 3p$wfav&' 
. VQ'ov-^e'lecfc J; Sr ?>> j g!pleinan^ who; 
does ridt -disagree fundameritaliy, 
^'itk Eastalhd, but, \van& his owri 
particular brand of' ^hulliffcatibni" 
-Ms; urged i]\& special; legislative 
committee, .appointed; to; fame a 
*Uegal" , way around Supreme 
Court decisions, to stick to the 
. following* prpgjpnlf:' /, 
'Prohibit l 'pdrnmo-la\y marriages;! 
repeal the- compulsory -school at- 
tcridanec law;., prohibit agitation? 
; 'oi lawsuits 4p treak^down segreg- 
gafion; establisb special ,retttiird- 
merits |or admission tp the M&is.^, 
sippi Bar- -provide "safeguards? for 
pitizejfe against usuipatipn of ifebt^ 

i '?P , * n ^ tn ? s J > -i fifeiit .(East-j ^ iHze |F against usmpation of ll 
landsi Brady;s. ands#illiams^ '.fort ^'M^ohH acbng^underbo\^!r'ofc 

id&.b their, ultimate 3 SuSfTuT,?^ *!» i % d ' ^«» ^ 
he first- 10. amSb ««Jtoofe^.Oalb*f Office, statecMi* 

}on?fe«oa operat Sfast .^!~ at,0ilS pn * e ^ Amend, 
tates^ aM mot for the protection I H#£. . „. 
Jthe sS», as the toSffl t fIu *I ^ ses ,t ie qn**n. whether 
: ^ - .iruiri v-w ^ ' ?Dt ^ feUovv ,U; S * SQ » at ^ 

-Anglo-Saxon supremacy. 

'*Ihis i governmeht was created 

■by f white \rrjen and; women. 

. "Ifi lia^ been *made/\a, .great na-' 

Ma by white tne^ mjg'Svomen? 
5?he\BaiIy News, editor * warns 
Eastkncirs "pullifecitiori? pr6^; 
ppsal represents 41 high point pf 
his battle; against: .the eon^Litutioiij 
,K f bt Jong; ago he proposed a:South^ 
Wide -of gaiiization of racist ;gi*oups 
sucli as the Wliite Citizens :Cou^ 
:ciJ^iHe -iolibwcd -this. -with ,a pro* 
posai that Southern, states organi^- 
and rise ta^ monies, for racist prop- 
aganda, Now, he openly hints at a 
revplt against the /Union, 

Aiuckson Ditily r^ews, editorn^ 
in the same issue which carried 
Eastland's statement on the\J£*it 
-riaire, |n discussing, the /waraflTof J 

fedejfo authority;, cause ?t"eacher| 
•to m& names -of organizations to 
whidh they* belong* \ 

N. Y.. Herald _^_ 

Tribune ' 

N. Y. Mirror 

tg ^ Daily Worker . 
*J The Worker., 
New Leader _ 


p«t X"jy.gi9-i9b » 

^ 138 ott ^ I95G 






iMWses/' said Eastland. 

■■-"■Jtf " 

sources to answer the vast atticir j 
v^, c*«u ^ukuu, janct to cope with the tremendous 

*he Senator, from timehSrrlme sums that are being used to liis- 
raising his arms and clenching represent us and to inflame the 
hi i fists for emphasis, told the purlic mind against us. 

_-. _ ■ K ■ -— w«rw.-*» w/ crowd at City Auditorium that * * * 

11*~ te 5™sissippi asked all Southern the attempt to end segregation in EASTLAND MENTIONED see 
sttuieup a regional eommijssiori" author- sc ? oolsand P ublic P laces was "a W several race riots 
lnds to maintain Rpo-vAO'aKrvw ^>? ™,* — ^ radical, pro-Communist nl ' " 


(New York Post Correspondent)- 

<*e*«W from Sew XWk *oHt, Com*** 196S, N w *«rk *««fr CoriN^Km) 

;• JACKSON, Miss. ™" " 

jttajea to unite in setting up a regional commission" author- SC ^ 00JS ana P ublic P laces was "a 
; used, to use public funds to maintain segregation and nromote, ra(Iioa1 ' P^o-Communist plot" 
white supremacy. The chairman of the Senate StemS * * * * 

Security Subcommittee, Senator Eastland (D, Miss > mad? SIX TAX-FREE foundations 
the proposal at a mass state rally of 2,G00 members of MisJ v *' ere listed by ®* stli ™& as finan- 

that anybody wanted any. No dissenting voice was heart, senior Senior. a,bSlssl PP l 

«fc to'KJSPL ^^f J*" 101 * «* •CttSSHT-CtouJl' '^he Supreme Court, in the 

certain to be passed by the Mls ; numbers who voted tor the Bait- name ot !aw and Justice, lias 

™" * ' poppeferated a monstrous 

t~*«.< u ,.„ wr yu^n oy xn& lvus- members who voted tor i 

m^nth, will: 

^Provide penalties against 
"any person interfering with 
state law under the color of 
lederat -authority." The Gover- 
nor-elect has said this includes 
J?BI agents who "interfere" 
With a state case. 

^Tighten the statutes against 
^unauthorized practice of law," 
making: *• lawyer subject to 
court action under, certain cir- 
cumstances if he handles a case 
•hrfed against segregation laws. 
tfBlimlnate the compulsory 
school attendance law. This is 
•iesigned to fxfee the state of 
any legal responsibility to send 
Negroes to school* It also would 
clear the way for Mississippi to 
place its public school system 
in private hands, thus sidestep. 
ping: federal authority. 

^Outlaw common law mar* 

^Strengthen state libel laws 
*»d designate it a crime to 
make an ''abusive telephone 
call/' ^t present, it is almost 
impossible to violate the state 
libel 'aw e— ept by identifying 
» white man as a* Negro, 

ffCreafe a state authority (a 
e^mmissEon or department) to 
•""•* full time to maintain sej 


Gov, White, Lt Gov* Jarroli Gar- 
tin, Formed Gov. Fielding Wright;, 

States Ries Vice Presidential **«*a"»«*s «.« -- wumvuw 
candidate in 1948, and John Sat- sanitation, Eastland said: 
.texfield, president of the Missis- r e ,iave nothing to 
sippi Bar Association* s ashjfimed ot We mistreat 

crime,'* he cried, and there were 
loud cheers* 
Proposing th ; southwide 

, SEN. SOrasMS (D-MLss.) and 
, farmer Congressman Kanfcin 
wired regret that th*y could not 
attend but sent their regards. 

Stennis (member of the new 
jiederal commission named by 
I President Eisenhower, Vice Presi-, 
I'defit Nixon and Speaker Rayburn^ 

td study constitutional rights}* 
;se>it a wire praising this, councils' 
"far reaching and helpful serv- 

As outlined by Eastland, the 
"regional commission" would be 
a headquarters agency to coordi- 
nate the white Souths fight 
against any change in the racial 
way of thingsrlt also would be 
ths center for promulgation of 
white supremacy doetl&es. 

**J* Would publicize the facts 
upon the characteristics, mor- 
als and native intelligence of 
the races . . . and: the tacts as to 
h«Av interracial schools lower 
tie educational standards of 
children and its psychological 
effects upon pupils of both 


relation under the laws 


'12/17/ $5 " 4 " U y i'y 

-Papo 4 Cols. 1-5 



4 jam? tese 


^^jM^f^prouu^rtmr sys- 

, "Defensive action is the road 
to destruction and de«<h, vVe 
must take the offense. We 
must carry the , message to 
every section of the U. &» 
He insisted that public funds 
sh<**M?e used because thar*tt* 
the only way we can set the re- 

[ vhich hell 
said came about "because they' 
tried ta force integration." 

«Ke said, however* that any H-l 
legal force should be avoided by I 
Citizens Council members be- f 
cause "these acts are turned I 
against us-" 

He mentioned a recent "as- 1 
sault" case in Mississippi which J 
had received wide publicity. 

He obviously was referring 
to the shooting of ius Courts, 
65, president of the NAACI* in 
Belzoni, a delta town which lias 
the most militant Citizens 
Council in Mississippi.. 
Eastland said the case was pub- 
noij licized by the "controlled" press J 
because the "plotters" wefce 
"afraid of the speed with whfchl 
tha Citizens Council organization I 
was going to the rest of thef 
Uif ted States," 

'EA&rL&NB'S AU0IENCE was. 
in the main, a well-dressed and I 
prosperous looking crowd. 

A high Council leader had 
said earlier that "there isn*£ a 
man on the Council^ state 
board of directors who is worth 
less than a half-million dollairs " 
At the entrance to the audi-J 
torium, a man was passing out! 
mimopgraphed copies of a letter! 
written to the KfAACP in Newl 
; York by Joseph Grisedieck, presi- j 
de nt of the Falstaff Brewing Cbr'| 
" ; p5ration of St* Louis. 


_MLL ; D . 

DEC 191955 

.I ff 1 — '^»V ORLEANS 


1?he letter Insisted the com- 
pany's, name be stricken f tfqm 
JLe NAAC)JP's membership mils. 
JPhc N&ACP hadgiven FalsWf 
a life membership certificate in 
April, 195^ after the company 
rciittf* a contribution to it* t 

In recent weeks a hate-sheet' 
called the White Sentinel (pub-i 
lishecl hi St. Louis^with John W* 1 
Hannltwa listed as editor md 
Belcr "NL WoJi as associate, e|uV 
Mr) told of the money gilt ho 
the NAACP by FalstafL 

j OCHE WHITE Sentinel warnad 
' that the * NAACP membership 
'*may well ?ost it $5,000,000 in 
lost sales, as Falstaf f drinkers all 
j over the Midwest, Mid-South ands 
parts of the West change to other! 
brands . . . Falstaff owes an] 
apology to everyone who used 2 
its been'* 

The White Sentinel is regu- - 
Aad& distributed by the Citizens 
Councils of some counties. CL I*. 
JPuckett* official spokesman for 
the Belzoni Citizens Council* 
said" IGfr copies of the issu* 
mentioning FalstafC had been 
issued in Belzonf. 
Puckett said white beer drink- 
ers had boycotted Falstaff in re- 
cent weeks.. He said no official 
council boycott order had been 
issued "because we didn't have to 
issue one.'* 

# ♦ * 

dPHE SAME issue of the White 
Sentinel recommended a boycott., 
of Philip: Morris cigarets becausei 
that company had? contributed to 
the Rational Urban; League. 

; The boycott is now in progresi' ■ 
in Mississippi, but so far Philip 

, Morris hasirt knuckled under. * 
The loudest foot-stamping an& 

; cbeering of the day came when, 
Adlai Stevenson and Estes Kef au- 

,v*r were blasted by Br. W, ' M. 
Casfcey, professor of political sci- 
ence at Mississippi College, a 
Baptist institution here 

ing the South . . ♦ and w hen the ' 
chips are dowri* StevensoBTwHlj 
he* found in the KAA€F camp*" 
Caskey saidl '*We can't depend! 
upon either major party* If we! 
F~«^7* ««*-*«.« ^«" ii^,r. stand: together we might name 

J Kefauver and others of his a Bresidem>-we might even 
H ilk appear to be misrepresent * Jw *B3me a Southerner."' --7*- 

•j •. -,t 


900jHEAll - Vy* 

It sow amid ox 

u NEWABJC— Afjcheering, entliu- 
:; >y siastic capacity audience of 900 
V persons gave Dx^ Theodore B. u M^ 
X Howard, militant fighter for JNte- 
^Xgrb^xlghts, in Mississippi, a stand- 
, ing ovation here last "Sunday at 
tlie mass- rally sponsored; by the 
< North Jersey Medical Society.' The 
rally ^vas held in the Bethany Bap- 
tist Church/ * 

When JDr„ Howard asked* "flow 

can the State Department go to 

Geneva^ and attend' all the other 

deliberative conferences to .talk 

I about free elections in . Germany 

land elsewhere around the world, 

( ?so long as "we have a Mississippi 

in the United States?" Applause 

swept the audience; * 

Another time his' remarks met 
with thunderous approval when 
he called on. the audience to- join 
in a national protest to "put Seri^ 
atpr Eastland out of the U, S. Sen- 
ate, and any others; who violate 
the law of the land." Dr. Howard 
had 'just finished describing how 
Eastland' had t urged the ' use of 
^ public funds in support - of the 

'^^j^sm^s^pj^ih^ op 

. £he Jmgvo leader ITescrlbed 
Revered Lee-s hght for the right 
of tlie Negro, /people to vote, and 
how 'he was murdered as a result. 
lie said: "Gus Courts (latest shooVl 
ing victim of the white suprema- 
cists) was shot for committtitfg one 
crime-the crime of wanting to be 
a first class citizen/* Courts name 
was, number eight on a list of Ne- 
groes marked for liquidation in 
Mississippi by Jan. 1. Dr. Howr 
. aid is number one on* the list; 
irnd * ne W list is being prepared; 
he said* ' * / 

Dn Howard called the Jtrial of 
tne rt tvvo men accused, of "killing 
Emmett Till 'A. 'Roman Holiday"- 
-not a trial He pointed out that 
* There are 986;000 Negroes in 
, Mississippi, 19^000 are registered 
j to Vote. But since one has- to be 
paid up two years info row on 
the* poll tax> fewer than 8,Q00 
jyote." But "the Justice Department* 
(has- failed to deal with these coh- 
' editions." He asked; "How long 
, >will we tell the Big Lie v of Amer- 
ican Democracy around the 

Dr: Howard made- it plain that 
the Negro people are fighting in 
Mississippi.^'The Negroes in Mis- 
sissippi are not y di$couraged/' he 1 
«saio\ " Black men are on the march* 
and they will not stop marching 
Ihey can't kiir986,000 of us. So 
long as there- is- one We wilKflght 
it out m Mississippi." 

&ipport of the NAAC& was 
^^S^fiV the ^groleadi. 

alfle ^tW^egro pc6pie in fflfc-^ 
sissippi- to light back he said. { 


Mr. Tolson 

Mr. Boardman 
Mr. Nichols __ 
Mr. Belmont — 

Mr. Harbo 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons _ 

Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoo 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman _ 
Miss Gandy 


1 (" 






Wash, Post and 

Times Herald 

Wash. News — 

Wash. Star 

N. Y, Herald _ 
M N. Y. Mirror 

Daily Worker J* 

The Worker 

New Leader 


Date iRFfl 1 5 iQgg- 

^M'i« y j y^^^i^^^ : 

■m lyi.fii-iihttTiiiiayviii 



/ i"' ' /j v^v 


fan J*F«BER$ . - .._„. 

'f£etT n sn« Tiwnrg isn MISSISSIPPI^ ^ r 




THE US J f»F wora* 



*A;<E It 










Vi < 


^i^J^L^ /-%fo6i\ 



Continue To Grow 

Over State, Nation 


Boardman — 










Mr. Par^ na 

Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tjnua 

Mr. y-.o 

Mr. ^interrowd- 

"Me. Rmm 

Mr- Hg31m»M» 

MISS Gaudy 



friends and barely eking^^ an He is planning to file suftrtorin- 
AssertS ^^^stence, _ ^ . /Tte^ation with the Yazoo .City 

"In Yazoo City the racial breach sc jj ol board, and says that the 
is constantly widening" Halbers- g^mming-pool decision is next on 

tarn writes. "Neither race is will- 
ing to work for mutual goals at 
this point/' Halberstam quotes the 
chairman of the Yazoo City Citir 
zens Council as saying, "I think 
integration is wrong. « .This is a 
real problem, one which might 
have been worked by time itself — 
but the N.A.A.C.P. has stepped m 
before time. * 

"I don't think you can legislate, 
solcomv^tely against custonj asj 

I (Continued on ^a«e 16) ) 

Council Action)* 

i Economic Sanctions 
I Hurting Negroes 

f NEW YORK, N. Y, — Power- 
ful economic sanctions are being 
[taken against Negroes who signed 
petitions asking for an end to seg- 
regation in schools in Yazoo City, 
Mississippi, according to a Mississ- 
ippi newsman writing in The Re- 
porter magazine. 

David Halberstam, reporter on 
the West Point. (Mississippi) Daily 
t Times Leader, describes the pre* 
■sent situation in Yazoo City, one 
[of five Mississippi cities selected 
by the National Association for the 

[Advancement of Colored People j (continued ftom v&Jk i) 
[as targets for implementing the^thejr have in this instance. That's 
^Supreme Courtis desegregation de-j why the people here are doing 
'cision. things they don't want to do, things 

According to Halberstam, the i they don't approve of. . . .This is 

the list. 

Halberstam sums up the con- 
flict of both sides with a quote 
scratched in Grant's Civil war 
headquarters two miles out of Y 
zoo} City; "To the owner of t» 
hou|e: Your case is a hard ol 
and I pity you." 

basis for opposition to N,A.A,C,P. 
acupn is being furnished by recent- 
ly organized Citizens Councils ded- 
icated to maintain segregation. 
i Names of the signers of the 
N.A.A.C.P. petition were listed in 
the Yazoo City newspaper and re- 
printed in a large advertisement 
paid for by the councils, Halbers- 
tam reports, and it was about that 
time that firings and boycotts be* 

"Either white men would fire a 
Negro worker immediately or a 
Negro would lose his job after an- 
other white man visited an em- 
, ployer and suggested that a peti- 
tion signer be fired/* he says, 
1 Although many Negroes removed 
their names from the list, their 
jobs- were not restored, according 
to Halberstam who reports that 

a sad thing, but, . . .it's really what 
we feel is our onty means of pro- 

Since the petition incident, N.A. 
A.C.P r membership in Yazoo City 
has fallen from about 200 to 65, 
Halberstam says. The N.A.A.C.P 
charter in Yazoo City has been 
organized since 1948, but the petv 
tion is the first specific action it 
has ever taken* 

The treasurer Of the Yazoo City 
N.A.A.C.P., who is planning to 
move, told Halberstam, "I signed 
that petition because I v felt I was 
working for freedom* I don't feel 
free now. A man has a right to be 
a first-class citizen and sign any- 
thing he thinks is right without be- 
ing threatened." *■ 

The future of Yazoo City is un- 
predictable, Halberstam says. The 

14 signers have left town and others president of the Citizens Council 
are planning to ,£o. Only those "If people leave us alone, I think 
whose incomes come exclusively the people here will back down and 
from the Negro section of town 1 get their feet on the ground, and 
can, continue a normal living* he work on their own problems. But 
siys, and adds that most of Jthei otherwise for every amount of ac- 
**si|ners are borrowing money f/omj tion, I'm afraid there will be a lot 

of reaction," 

The local N.A.A.C.P. president, 

who is staying in Yazoo City, said, 

"We believe there can be inte- 

■* gration in schools here in three or 

four years, maybe sooner, and I 

j frl^-gAak 'the Negroes her e are rea dy 




Page 1 Col. 2 /' 


126 JAN 4 1956 






DEC 14 1955 


. r "ff l "~ NEW C 

— ' I 






o v 

0-19 (7-8-55) 



kgro Paper, Says: Send 

Mr. tolson 

Mr. Boardmcm 
Mr, Nichols __ 
Mr. Belmont — 

Mr. Harbo ^ 

Mr* Mohr 

Mr, Parsons _ 
Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

President Eisenhower has been a&ed by the Pittsburgh 
Courier to declare the State of Mississippi^ be "a state of 
chaos" and to send troops "to protect the civil rights of a 
million Negro citizens of that state/' it was revealed yester- 

The Courier, a pro-Republican Negro weekly, asked 
in its letter published in its current issue: - T 

"Are these purveyors of hat from Mississippi's Hell- 
hole bigger than the U.S. government Can they defy the 
laws of the land and the molral conscience of America?" 

The editors of the Courier cited the murders in Missis- 
sippi this year of Rev. George jfrV. Lee, Lamar Smith and 
14-year-old Emmett Louis TilL *T *~ F 

for which no one has been pun- hjb frequently been the stfunchest 
ished. Also 'recalled was the fact supporter of the Adnnhistlttion on 

that two white men-Dr. David 
R. Minter and A. E. Cox-haye 
been ordered to leave their farm 1 
near Greenwood because they 
were, "charged" with supporting 
racial integration; 

i Pointing out to the President 
that "Negro citizens (in Mississippi) 
have no protection ' under, the Jaw 
of the state in which they live" ated 
tliat officials, throughout the sta£e; 
have made "a inockery" of law, 
the editors urged;. . • ,' 

■*. ... thatyoii send United States 
soldiers into, Mississippi to protect! 
the civil jrights of a million Negro) 

both domestic and foreign affairs; 

"There can be no lasting peace 
anywhere in the world unless our 
nation practices what it preaches. 
. . . There can be no world leader- 
ship for America unless we ' can 
convince the rest of the world (6S 
percent non-white) that we right- 
fully deserve that role." 

Then passing' to Mississippi 
again, the Courier stressed the ur-. 
gency of its appeal: 

"We know, Mr; President, that 
Negroes are getting tired of be- 
ing pushed around* They're law- 

citizeiis of that state who consti- «■* vw »™ m-uuuu. xneyre law- 
tute ^^rcerit of the state's popu-j abiding citizens, but they're pre- 
latl0U - '■ * paring to PROTECT THEM- 

The letter continued;;- ** SELVES." 

"... It is pur firm belief.that as'j Referring obliquely to the hands- 
the nation's. Chief 'Executive and off policy, of Attorney General 
Commander-in-Chief of our Armed ^Herbert Brownell and the Depart- 
Forces there Js no other way to- pent of Justice oH the terror de- 
protect the lives of these- people." jvelopmenis in Mississippi, the 

„ The Courier charged that "the 
White Citizens Councils^ .a unit of 
the disgraceful Federation for 
Constitutional 1 Government/'' was 
behind most of the terror. direc\ed 
against Mississippi, , Negroes!, 
called attention to the fact 1 thai 
tyflOBg WGC members were those 
whose; "names are familiar to the 
political and economic' life of the 
H?** 01 * * * * businessmen^ bankers,- 
dUantation owners state ahchfederai 
dmcials.'* ' ' x • \_ 


w the world, -, the^eouner^^nibl? 

i Courier warned again: . - < 

"Unless Mississippi Negroes feel ] 
that their government vM give 
them protection which thei\state' ' 
refuses to give the»v anythin^an , 
^Jiappen«" : . / 

r il 

Miss Gandy 


:> r , 



'•\ St. 


-?.S DEC VI '355 

Wash. Post and 
Times Herald 

Wash, News 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald _ 

N. Y. Mirror _ 
Daily Worker . 
The Worker _ 
New Leader - 









Mr, Tolson_ 

Mr* Nichols 

Mr. Boardman 

fltr, Belmont 

Mr, Mason._ 

Mr* Mohr„ 

Mr. Parsons, 
Mr* Rosen. 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr* Nease 

Mr* Winterrowd-, 

Tete. Room 

Mr* Holloman 

toes Gandy..., 

Press Brownell to Acf-f^t 

III f USSISSinm ^* ■***©nco 


. AmUWta, MftBto ftto, ._gg^"»»» * N ^° C «? *™ - MISSISSIPPI ." 

action was passed last night by 
the N. Y. Young democratic Club 
and a copy was being prepared 
for forwarding to pov. White of 

Brownell yesterday refused to 
order a federal investigation into 
the kidnap slaying of Emmett 
Louis Till, 14, Negro schoolboy 
from Chicago, slain while vaca- 
tioning, in Mississippi. 

Sen. Humphrey (D-Minm) spoke 
at the Young Democrats' meet- 
ing He urged the Democratic 
Party to "get on fire on social 
issues or lose" the 1956 electfim. 

In a Jetter to the Republilm 
Gov. Stratton of Illinois, Brofn- 
ell- said the offense was perpe- 
trated by private citizens and don- 
lined to Mississippi ; 

"Such being the case," he add- 
ed, 'this department is without 
nny authority to- take investigat- 
ive or other action." 

The resolution was adopted "in 
sense'* but was referred to- a 
special committee for rewording. 
See Campaign of Murder 

* K J? 01 ?^ out that in ^cent 
months "there has been and W 
tinues to be evidence of a con- 

o?w f campai f n P f murder and 
°. the T r f °rms of violence directed 
at Negro citizens in Mississippi, 
c»mbmed with a flagrant failure 

fiL? 16 *^ of . ^sponsible of- 
fi|ials to investigate such afcts 
a£d prosecute those responsib* > n \ 

See story on Gov. Harriman 
and civil rights issue, on Page 

t The resolution cited the follow- 
ing exaynples: 

^ "The murder of tamar 
Smith, who had been active in 
interesting Negro voters in a 
primary electioa in Brook- 
ha ven, Mi S s., on Aug. 13, 1955. 

<S 'The murder of the Rev. 
George Lee in Belzoni, Miss, 
on May 1, 1955, the first of his 
race to register to vote in Ihe 
county. , 

5 "The kidnapping and mur- 
der of Emmett Till, a 14-year- 
old boy, near Money, Miss., on 
Aug. 28, 1955. 

q "The critical wounding of 

G B u i. Co 1 urts ' for mer "president 
of the local chapter of the Na- 
tional Assn. for the Advance- 
ment of Colored People, in Bel- 
zoni, Miss., on Nov. 25, 1955." 
^ x The ^solution pointed out 
that Sections 241 and 242 If Title 
18 of the U.S. Code "characterizes 
such acts of violence undfer cer- 
tain circumstances as ;£eder; 
Continued oii Page 7 

H, Y„ 

uiA't ; 

OEG-7- .A$&... A 

!OKV.'ARl>«!) h\ X. y\ niV'161'OJ!? 





r; ( . 







Urge Brownell Act 
In If iss. Terror 1 

Continued from page 5 
crimes and provides for punish- 
ment thereof." 

It called on Brownell to us$ 
these sections of the code to make 
an FBI investigation and present 
the facts to a federal grand jury. 

In the event that he finds these * 
sections o£ the code do not -gsi- 
power him to do this, Brownell 
was nrged to present legislation 
at the next session of Congress 
to enable him to seek an indict- 
ment "to prosecute as federal of- 
fenders those responsible for acts 
•of terrorism and violence such 
as -committed against Negro citi- 
zens in Mississippi/' t 

Sen. Humphrey predicted that 
the next session of Congress 
would- pass an anti-poll tax law 
and establish a permanent com- 
mission of civil rights. 

He also called for a stop on 
"making the- Southern Senators 
whipping boys" in the civil rights 
legislation fight. The answer, he 
said, is to elect more Democratic 
Senators from the Midwest. * 

In a question-and-answer peri- 
o4 after his speech Humphrey 
said that the 1956 civil rights 
plank in the Democratic platform 
would he as strong or stronger 
than that of 1952. 

The Young democrats also re- 
ferred to their city affairs com- 
mittee a resolution calling Mayor 
Wagner's "handling of the re- 
appointment of. Justice Delany 

Wagner refused to reappwit 
Delany to the Domestic Rela- 
tions bench, because of his* jal- 
legefe left-wing sympathies. | t 
• 'Tie city affairs committee] is 
mahfttg- a report on the Wagi ay 
administration which is expected 
to fully cover the Delany mat- 

0-19 (7-8-55) 




,<y • 


Eastland $i mississippi 
Rally Spars Racist Drive 

**£ S ' SUpr ' !me C ° mtS mK -»g»g»a°" •»«■* (tough a South-wide, ta-Mpp^M X 

Speaking before a meeting of 
the White Citizens Council, East- 
land called tlie anti - segregation 
ruling a "monstrous crime/' and 
charged that in Washington school 
integration had brought on "a defi- 
nite lowering of standards/' East- ' 
lands attacks on the Supreme Court 
and Negroes, made in the tradi- 
; tion of the most despised 19th Cen- 
tury racist rabble ronsers, was ap- 
pended 63 times. Eastland ac- 
cused those who oppose segrega- 
tion of making a .'Vast attack" 
i agajust the South, making it neces* 
sary lor southern states to use tax 
monies to finance a defense of seg- 
s relation. 

'» Eastland's proposed commission 
? would ^acquire and publicize the 
Jaels as to how interracial schools 
lower the educational standards ot 

the W'xy foi; placing schools in pri- 
vate hands; illegalr/e common-law 
marriages; make "abusive. telephone 
calls". a crime against the state; 
establish a state agency whose 
main function would be to main- 
tain segregation. 

Sett. Joint Stennis (D-Miss) wired 
1 his regrets at not being able to 
attend this gathering of well-dress- 
ed while supremacists. 

Meantime, both the state police 
and the FBI have definitely called 
off their probe of the shooting last i 
week of Cus Courts, a Bel'/om 
Negro storekeeper. FBI headquar- ; 
ters in Memphis announced the I 
work of FBE agents constituted an \ 
inquiry" and not an investigation, I 
They \vt*e trying to find out only i 
whether any federal kivs had been j 

Courts, who was shot bv un- I 
Known white men because he in* ! 
Hie 2,000 WCC members then wsti-d upon voting, was scheduled 

Mr. Tolson 

Mr. Boardman 
Mr. Nichols _ 
Mr. Belmont __ 

Mr. Harbo 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons _ 

Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoo 

Mr. Wlnterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman 
Miss Gandy 


126 DEC 8 1955 

is a 


radical pro-Commu- 

__j( i »,um-.iuuiuu sutuaaras or i -t 

fl children and its psychological ef-[ c l ared i 

: teet upon pupils of both races/1 imt P io ^ 

;In integrated schools, he averred,! /'f ?>— — « .«—««-«» ». CT , . 

f the white children are being pullJ ad0 P ted , a -^-point legislative pro-; t« be discharged from a Mound 
ed down to the intelligence level! ^"l wI \ IC » included: a law to 'Bayou hospital where he was car- 
» f thej& groes.*' penalize federal agents for "inter- ried a week ago. 

• -, ff r pm l « Mw l A campaign to' ^1-n ^ St f te 1:uv \ ™ k * {t Jt ™* aIso lptt ™«l duit FBI 
>ove" that Negroes are inferi or \ m ^f ibl ^ h)r ^wyers who handle agenU, investigating they murder 
fchmllv lo whiles mUlI0 ^^segi-egahou cases to practice law last May ok Rev. C^rgeV Leo 
Dese«rre*4tioii l?.i«ri » f i "\ M ? SLVSipp i ; aboIftsU «w«P«W; "* Bitoii, had not questionM Mrs. 
utse^rtMfioiu fcastland de- school attendance so as to clear Hosebud Lee, the slain m,m| wfr£ 

ytyls , " hcl ) mx binding up their inquiry i 

>-/ / ■ * -, - ■ , t .*V-*1 4 «»« making a ivjwrt to Washings 

'O "v ' Ll» a' { !;«, / tun. * 9 

Wash. Post and 
Times Herald 

Wash. News 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald 

N. Y. Mirror 

Daily Worker viL 

The Worker 

New Leader 

■ intc 




Spd. Eastland's address in full:'*f, W[ for f ^"™JV)™ S 
, t „, , . ,■ ,. , • i i vested m (lift people, This condition 

Mr. C. h a i r man, distinguished h ^ jo hc wriUcn j|l|o thc ConsU . 

guests, memb ers of the Missis sippi i.ution of (.lie United Slates before 

7 ITT 7T<-j- . ,-1 n "the original thirteen States would 
A^obmfion nt 0.1.*™ Councils, » „ fa ^^ jn (hesc 

ladies and gentlemen: ' words: 

Y ou have g reatl y honored imr by "The powers not delegated to 
r : „^. l (hp Unitcd sutcs by thc Con . 

inviting me to address you flit <his slituLion, nor prohibited by it 

thc first statewide meeting of thc. to the states, are reserved to 

membership of toe Citizen's Coun- the States respectively, or to 

cils. 1 You comprise a great patriot- the people." 

ie organization. " Those great men who framed thc 

Your leaders are courageous in- 
telligent and forthright. You have 
accepted one of the greatest chal- 
lenge's wnjch has fvor fac d " peo- 
ple There is at strike the preser- 
vation of thc American >ysiem of 
Government with its dual powers/ 
which provide for additional liber- 
ty pad freedom. There is further 

Constitutions of the State of Mis- 
sissippi translated this reservation 
for you in this language: 

"The enumeration of rights 
A n this constitution shall not be 
construed to dtny and impair 
? others retained by, and inher- 
ent in, thc people." 
These arc not idle words. They 

culture, the creative' genius, and birthright; your heritage, and your 
the advanced civilization of thc 
unite race. The entire future ofi 

sacred trust for future generations. 
The inspiration for these great 

lh J . c country is at: issue. You have 
accepted Llie gauntlet and arc 
fighting for these things. In addi- 
tion, you arc protecting home and 
fireside, and thc welfare of our 
children. Yes, you have honored 
me by inviting me to address such 
a group as you on an occasion such 
as this. When history writes its fi- 
nal verdict on this present genera- 
lion of Mississippians and South- 
erners, the names of you ladies 
and gentlemen here assembled will 
have a very high place upon the! _ 
Roll of Honor. In a time of grave (j^ : The people prescribe for "thern- 

reservations is founded in the ori- 
girs of the common law. Thc com- 
mon law has a much longer his- 
tory in this country than docs thc 
Republic. It was planted at James* 
town] and Plymouth with thc ori- 
ginal settlers. 

Thc Common-Law, ir? contrast 
\\'«th the Roman Law and thc Civ- 
•1 Law under which most of Wes- 
tern Europe lives, is no Code that 
is written by an all-powerful and 
ominscicnt State. Thc Common- 
Law in its essence is no more nor 
no less than the rules of conduct 

(roubles, you have reacted in keep- 
ing with thc finest and highest tra- 
ditions of our State and Region. 
As long as Mississippi and the 
South arc blessed with people such 
as you, we have no fear of the fu- 

The Government of the United 
States is unique from all others 
ever established in that it ree- 
owzed in the organic Constitutions 
Ihpfc the reservoir of sovereignty 

-lilZ r.Lj&T-rcN LEDGJR 

■j/cfTjcr, xiss. '- 



selves at the. level of the commun- 
ity. They are directed toward thc 
maintenance of peace, domestic 
tranquillity and good order. They 
are founded upon the habits, cus- ( 
terns, and traditions of the people; 
who live in the smallest segment! 
of an organized society— the com- 

This is the legal definition of 
the basis of our law: 

"Law is not a body of com- 
mands, imposed upon society 
from without, cither by an in- 
dividual sovereign or superior, 
or by a sovereign body consti- 
tuted by representatives of so- 
ciety itself. It exists at all 
times as one of the elements 
oi society springing directly 
tacoLjiabit and custom. I L is^ 
therefore, the unconscious cre- 

ation of society or a g rowth . 
tov the most part it needs no 
interpreter or vindicator. The 
Members of society are famil- 
iar with its customs and fol- 
low them,, and in following cus- 
tom they follow the law." 
The people granted to the fed- 
eral and state governments cer- 
tain well defined, clear, and spe- 
cific rights, powers, and duLies. 
There is nothing in the United 
Slates Constitution, or the amend- 
ments thereto, that gives to Con- 
gress, the President, or the Su- 
preme Court the right or power io 
declare that white and colored chil- 
dren must attend the same public 
schools. There is nothing in this 
document that authorizes a decree 
that white and black people mustj 
oat at the same public places, play 1 
on thc same recreation grounds,] 
golf on the same courses at the 
same time, and swim and bath in 
thc same pools, lakes, and beach- 

The Supreme Court of the Unit- 
ed States, in the false name of Jaw 
and justice, has perpetrated a rf on- 
jstrous crime. It presents a ejear 
I threat and present danger, not only 
; to the law, customs, traditions, and 
racial integrity of Southern people, 
but also to the foundations of our 
Republican form of Government. 
Washington warned that the usur- 
pation of power is a corrupting 
force. In his Farewell Address, he 
said : 

"Thc Constitution which at 
any time exists till changed by 
an explicit and authentic act 
of thc whole people is sacredly 
obligatory upon all." 

"Let there be no change by 
usurpation; for though there I 
in one instance may be the in- ' 
strument of good, it is the cus- 
tomary weapon by which free 
governments are destroyed." 
Jefferson foresaw that in thc 
three Branches of the Federal Gov- 
ernment, the Supreme Court was 
the Achilles heel, and it could 
someday act like a "thief in the 
nicht" to steal away thc basic 
rights and liberties of thc people. ■ 

Abraham Lincoln advocated de- 
fiance of the Supreme Court. This 
is what lie had to say: 
*" — r^Tiie people— the people— are 
the rightful masters of bo& — „ 

■\.\ ; ^'in . u... 

y ' ^jeAote' ;. f 

Mv. *i< ■ar» :>ian — 


>;■/ i,t] /u -i^r 



:o' , • 3 ..— 

; ■ ' ...» *„.._ 

2 1 i . .,— 

\ t 

Mr. x - mU '.rc-vy'd- 

TAi. v^m 


Air, Hi :l<vu»n 

Miss Gandy. .^„ 

„ „__ 


p/> 1 




congresses and courts— not to 
overthrow the Constitution, but 
iq overthrow the men who per- 
vert it" 
The anti-segregation decisions 
arc dishonest decisions. Although 
rendered by Judges whose sworn 
duty it was to uphold the law and 
to protect and preserve the Con- 
stitution of the United States, these 
decisions were dictated by politi- 
cal pressure groups bent upon {he 
^destruction of the American sys- 
jtem of Government, and the mon- 
jgrclization of the white race; The 
?Judges who rendered them violat- 
ed their oaths of office. They have 
jjdisgraced the high office which 
'they hold. The Court has responded 
i to a radical pro-Communist politi- ! 

-44».Ford Foundation A-flw-Iar^, They have through the^oliti-i 

Inl^Lff I ^ n f? us t °i r fcI ?caropinions of the Court removed' 
Foundations dedicated to establish- thc legal road b i ocks . They now 
mg social equality between the attempt to mould public opinion 
black and white races. It has as- to accepfc full social equality and 
sets in excess of 520 million dol* amaI g an iation 
seFup\no P w^ ™* P^ent condition in which 

shifts ?!£?$£&** ^yzzs^^ 

lion dollars to be spent for «ex-^ous . th . a » S^^S^L? 
amination of restrictions of free- more^insuhous than I^sfru* 
dom of thouehfc inauirv anri *v tlon - There was no attcm P t to have 
Ssion inThe uffi sSes»^^ f ? cia V^ Vj£t 
Three hundred and ninety thousand ?' r "°T- K IS ^ if^SSi ° 
dollars of this sum has Jone to thes^f «* ^J™? nfSSSS 


South. Ten thousand dollars was 
given to the National CounciL of 
Churches of Christ in the U, S. A 
for its Department o£ Racial and 

must organize and we must be 
TnHtTant. That is the pr'e/cri'iJtion. \ 
The only way that we can mobilize ; 
all of our stren^a is through or*, 
ganization. The only way we canj 
make effective use of it U through; 
organization. We must match the] 
organizing ability and the tactics"] 
of the \\ A. A. C. P. They have; 
done a successful job. They didj 
not submit whea Court decisions" 
were ag&uisfc t^rm, Thsy fought; 
and 'are still fighting, This we most? 
Certainly must do* j 

are built ph gradualism. To induce K wonderful iofr has be^i done,* 

h m Mississippi. You have sho T.'ai 

Southern Begional Council to p eqj.?,. ■ ■ . , „ + „_ 

mnf. ra cial integration in tfaT^**™ °V° f ^ rce T , US * nc ^ 

ply step by step* In Reconstruc- 
tion there was the attempt to force 
the hideous monster upon us all at 

will to resist. My friemb, reslis-^ 
Lute is con'a&.tus. Resistance in-* 
spired by the Citizens' Councils of, 

once. Our ancestors rallied andi^ JL > { ^ read all i er 
stopped it. Its weakness then was£ . f , T t . * - nu*'»^ 

C. P. This is the way 
lawsuits will be financed in Mis- 
sissippi and in other t Southern 
States. ] ] 

The Carnegie Foundation Hnauj- 
e| completely the work of Dr. Gun* 
njr Myrdai and his collaborators 
irf the preparation and publication 
of "An American Dilemma", the 
key "Modern Scientific Authority' , 
on which the Supreme Court relied 
to sustain its psychological and so- 
ciological segregation decision. 

The Carnegie Corporation has al- 

the problem of social equality 
(racial amalgamation is nationwide 

must fight them, with every legal^^, Council £ South * Car- 
weapon at every step of .the wjy.^ have more than 50)000 mem j 

M tjnovement in this i country ./Jdo -Cultural RelaionZ Most'oTThe^i^f ; to M"£ 1L * V* "«""«*» «™ T^thisl country I know of a Citizefas'l 
not have to tell you that this thfng mi iii on , dollars has h**n «n«nd«d!«»t they .attempted to enforce itWw^^™^^^ 
is broader and * 
N. A. A. C. P, 
K A. A. C. P. 
|,the weapon 

It is the agent, It is the" action ft t A. A. 
jgroup. It is backed by large or- 
ganizations with tremendous power, 
who are attempting with success 
lo mold the climate of public opin- 
ion, to brainwash and indoctrinate 
[.the American people to accept ra- 
cial integration t and mongreliza 
tion. Benjamin Disraeli, a great 
British Prime Minister, once said* 
"No man will treat with in- 
difference the principle of racet 
fjr it is the key to history* 1 ! 
"mis is a historic biological and 
psychological truth, but it i& de- 
nied, and those who espouse it are 
ridiculed in present day America. 
'Time, will not permit me to list 
the organizations and groups who 
back, support, cooperate with and 
if direct the N.*A. A, C. P. In gen- 
eral they are church groups, ra-, 

Southern people are right both Re- 
gally and morally. } 

It we knuckle under to this, then 
every right we have is gone. The 
way I know Mississippians and 
Southerners, thank Gq6> our peo« 
pie are made of sterner stuff, 
There will be a fight each step 

so made heavy contributions toj of the way. It is up to us to prove 
the National Urban League. | that we are worthy to be free. It 

is up to us to prove that we are 
worthy of our heritage. My pre- 

will be the golden hour of Sou- 
thern history. Southern people will 
meet the acid test. Thsy will tul 

Other foundations that have been 1 
active in contributing their fundi? 
and effort to aid the N. JL A. C, P., 
the! Urban League andlsimilar or- 
ganizations are the Majshall Field 

..„. „ „_._ ___,„ F „_ Foundation, the Kosenwald Foun- 

cial organizations, labor unions, dation, the Rockefeller Foundation; 4 *tit their des'lw. Lawless acts of 

and liberal groups of all shades of and the Dorothy and Louis Rosen- a Court do not make the law. Cor- 

Red. They run from the blood redteil Foundation. These and other, npt decisions of a Court do not 

of the Communist Party to the, anti-segregation organizations con- change the law* The Supreme 

almost equally Red of the National trol news services, the magazines, jCourt does not have the power to 

Council of Churches of Christ in the radio and television chains. 

the U. S. A. Never in the history There is a continual rain of pro- 
of this country has there been jsuch paganda. There are no facts from 

a campaign as {hey now waga a- the' other side. The South today is 

gainst us. Children are indcfftri- the victim of forces and influences 

nated in the schools. Student! in^that originated far from its own 

Icolleges are brainwashed. Let mcj borders. It is foolish for us to 

say here that we do not have much < deny the power and influence of 
, of this in Mississippi, There is those that are arraigned against 
|j wobably more of it in ether Sou- us. When groups can subvert the 
\j them States. It is general, how-thighest Court of this land, and con- 
1 ever, in the rest of the country.' trol the President of the United 

The Foundations, and other groups, States, they must be reckoned 

with tremendous sums of tax ex-'with. Never in the history of the 

empt money, are financing this;United States has there been such 

drive in a big way. The facts showja well planned, massive and ef- 

that most of the money the Foun- Actively executed propaganda bar- 

dAtions spend goes into the fielcUof tage as that now directed against 

cyil rights and the promotion jof 'us. fr Tne p lan is to destroy every 
doctrine of racial amaiganja- phase of segregation in thisxoun- 

bers. The organization in Virginia 
got the State to adopt a state poli- 
cy to preserve segregation. Mis- 
sissippi is the hard core of the re- 
sistance in the country. It is 
spreading from here throughout 
the nation. It is growing very very 
fast. The Citizens' Councils and 
similar organizations but with dif- 
ferent names are the 'only effec- 
tive opposition the N. A, A. C* P. 
fias ever had. The Citizen's Coun-' 

diction is that the next few years w^ of Mississippi have been the 

change the Constitution of the 
United States. There is no law 
that a free people must submit to 
a flagrant invasion of their per-j 
sonal liberty. Our position is sound 
under the Constitution and laws 
of the United States, 
The drive for racial amalgama- 


and those who would mix little 
children of both races in our 
schools are following an illegal, 
immoral and a sinful doctrine. Re- 
member this: No people in all the 
history of Government have ever 
been forced to integrate against 
their will. 

There is only one prescription 
tor victory. As we prepare to fight, 
t his is b asic : Organization. . Kyer ,v 
ctfitlTStep must be based upoirand 
through our organized effort. We 

most effective of all. The N. A, ? 
A. C. P. well knows that the or-j 
ganization of our people has been' 
highly successful. They are afraid' 
when they see it spreading through-; 
out, the country. Mississippi re-i 
ccifcly has been singled out iforj 
majssive assault- Do you realizej 
the principal reason? It wast an 
attempt to make the Citizens') 
Councils and our people too hot[ 
to touch. It was an attempt to dis- ! 
credit your organization, our State, ] 
and our people to prevent our or-, 
ganization and ideas of resistance* 

, v . „ from spreading throughout the 1 

tion is both illegal and immoral, j South. No one knows better than 

the N. A, A. C. P. how effective 
the Citizens' Councils have been. 
No one is more aware than they; 
of how highly contagious your or-,j 
ganized efforts have been, \ 

Northern politicians will makej 
a mistake if they misjudge the de- 
termination of Southern people. 
The Court and other pr essure 
grou ps ac tually expected SotttfteftTi 
:peopie*to knuckle under and sub-; 

it They^are surprised 
jfmination of\ f 5ur peop,, 
#ed that the Attorney 

ed at the-dei'Tr* +\ \ 

opie. i kUe\ fcasl and - - 

ney Genfral »* UJ,| W"W 

, * — 4 J, (Coniinucd from 

Pnge 4) 

^^tf^^^if^^-IWchological effect upon pupils; 
JSSt rtS ri h A°5 en f- We mus 1oTboth races. There should afco' 

■ - - ^4Sd%^^ 

of the Uni^d States is sending the, scalawag State Legislatures estab^itian is righteous. The great m*!'^ ™£» ^^fr^k 

n B. I.Jfito Mississippi and other lished separate schools for whiteJJority of the ra nk an d file^Uhei " f® SL?2 Xmut is being 

&&«.-*«. «sl5 a art ajsya"-* * k *- - — •-»= 

investigate crime, but the political 
investigations such as occurred in 
Holmes County and in Arkansas 
[ () are another matter. They went to! 
Hoxie, Arkansas and attempted to 
intimate the people to agree to an 
interracial school. This bluff will 
not work. Let me say further that 
Mississippians are law abiding. In- 
law enforcement we rate well; 
above Illinois, New York and all 1 
of our detractors. Our State en- 
forces the law without favor. The J 
light that we wage must be a just 
and legal fight. ,Acts of violencV 
|,< md lawlessness have no placf j 
'iolence hurts the cause of thfe 
outh. Violence and lawlessness^ 
'11 hurt this organization. These! 
, ts are turned against us by our 
»mies. They are effectively used 
mould public sentiment against 
in the North. It is imperative 
we be looked upon with favor 
have the best wishes of the 
age American. In this fight 
ne should be mistreated. The 
and file of the Negro race in 
ssippi and in the South are 
4 lilitantly demanding interra-* 
-hools. They are not militant-' 
i landing the end of segrega 
hey are sensible. The white 
l>- . also desire peace and har 
jmony. This is all we want If ft it 
wete not for a few trouble makers 
jan<j| agitators^ this thing woyld 

had the financial aid and en- 
couragement of the white people. 
No similar group of people in 
known history have made greater 
strides and advancement in so 
short a period of time as have the 
American Negro under segrega- 
tion. The white people have been 
largely responsible for this pro- 

The monuments to their progress 
can be found in the schools, chun * 
e|, fraternal orders, banks, hdt- 
Pjfcals, insurance companies, busi- 
ness establishments, and farms 
that are owned and operated sole- 
ly by Negroes. .Their preachers, 
teachers,, lawyers, doctors, scien- 
tists, farmers, and businessmen 
are the living evidence of what 
they- have accomplished with the 
aid of white Southerners. 

The Negroes who graduate from 
Northern colleges and universities 
are forced to come South in order 
to secure, employment as teachers. 
We have 113,000 Negro teachers in 
the South. South Carolina alone 
employs more Negro te&hers than 

Ido $11 the States of Njsw York, 
New Jersey* Pennsylvania, Mas- 
sachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont, 
Rhode Island, New Hampshire 
and Maine combined and with 2,000 
to spare. Yet the combined Negro 
populations of these nine States 

set^e itself. There would _be ng exceeds that of South Carolina by 

' more than a million persons. In 
all the 31 non-segregated States 
[there are only 10, 248 Negro tea- 
chers. In all of the North there 

Iprpblem at all The trouble comls 

Ifrlm a few agitators within amd 

ItBt organizations in the North, "ii ; , Xil mk m iim 1WCJ1 mm 

1 1S t0 meet this threat that we : musts ar e only 100 Negro college instruc- 
organize. It is the responsibility offers.. In host 'fields of endeavor, 
[the organization also to do all it 'those who receive college and pro- 
: cari to prevent violence and to pre^ fessionai training find that the 
vent the mistreatment of any man. South offers tb them the widest 
; My friends, the white and Negro? field of opportunity, 
jpcople in the South have travelled] Thurgood Marshall, the chief at- 
a long, sometimes hard, but mut-^torney for the N A. A. C. P is 
jually satisfactory road since the] a pro duct of the segregate^ school 
;days of Reconstruction. The instil system 

tufcion of segregation has been tliei 
primary instrument in the growth,, 
development, and progress of thei 
[Negro race. 

It was on a voluntary basis that; 
at the end of the Civil War they 
left the white churches and orga- 
nized their own. Begardless J>£ 
what Northern radicals might hatje 
Iwantea^ even the carpetbag arfd 

l (Cnntinttcd on Taw 5) | 

The field for Negro advancement 
tn the South under our system 
ol segregation is unlimited. No one 
wants to deny the Negro economic 
opportunity or economic equality* 
Li is a historic fact that Southern 

our side. After all, the average 
American is not a racial pervert. 
We must place our case at the bar 
of public opinion. As I have sa*d, 
vast sums of money, much of it 
tax exempt, are being thrown into 
a vast program of propaganda and 
outright falsehood to misrepresent 
Southern views and conditions 'in 
the South. Millions of fair-minded 
Americans in other regions denied 
access to the truth, are beifig 
hohdwinked, misled, and deceived 
by) this cunning campaign. In fts 
essence it js anjatt^ck upon the 
potfer of the States, and upon tfa 
Anjerican system of Government. 
The Negro is beincj used as a pawn 
by those who plot the destruction 
of our Government. The Commun- 
ist conspiracy can never succeed 
in America unless there is first 
destroyed the powers of trie States, 
ft can never succeed until the peo- 
ple are deprived of the power to 
control their local institutions. 
iWhen the Supreme Court destroys 
focal self-government in the South, 
it also destroys it in the North. We 
must meet these attacks. In my 
judgment it is urgently imtfera- 
,hve that the Southern States? set 
up a regional commission to ans- 
wer these attacks upon us* Public 
funds should be used. In fact the 
,use of pubttc" funds is the only way 
► we can get the resources to ans- 
wer the vast attack' and to cope 
with the tremendous sums that 
are being used to misrepresent us 
and to inflame the public mind 
against us. We have nothing to be 
ashamed of. We mistreat no one. 
We are proud of our system. Why 
should we not advertise and ex- 
plain it? The Southern States have 
not only the legal right but the le 
igal duty to set up this Commis 
sion and to finance its activities 
with public funds. This is an at- 
tack upon the sovereignty of the 
States, and a State has the legal 
Jnght and the legal duty to protect 
its sovereignty. It is obligated to 

is going on in the Washington! 
school system. President Eisen 
.hower promised that the Washing- 
I ton schools would be a laboratory 
jto demonstrate to the world how 
easily and effectively integration 
ancpDemocracy would work. Prisj 
lideit Eisenhower's own grandcijl- 
jdaen have been removed fromfa] 

syktem that permits integrated 
schools and placed in a private 
[Episcopal school in Alexandria! 

In Washington, there is one ele 
mentary school which is located 
in the heart of a white residential 
district where most of the high 
officials in Government, including 
the Vice President, and Members 
of Congress live. During the last 
school year this was operated as 
a segregated school. It is most 
amusing to note that for the cur- 
jtent school year one lone Negro 
student has been assigned to at- 
tend this "integrated" school The 
situation is not funny or amusing 
for the white parents and children 
who are forced to use the truly in- 
tegrated schools in the Washing- 
ton system. 

; They boasted that Washington 1 
schools' would be an example! off 
hc|w good racial integration wofild 
be*. Now they, do everything pos-| 
sible to hide the example but thei 
facts are leaking out. ■ 1 

In a recent meeting of the City 
Commissioners in Washington, one] 
iCommissioner charged that pro-1 
motions in the District of Colum-i 
bia City Schools were made by 
weight and poundage. To this the 
Superintendent of Schools replied 
that it was not true that promo- 
tions in the District of Columbia 
schools are by size but it is true 
jthat promotional standards from 
one class to another will have to 
be lowered to accommodate the 1 

Both Negro and white teachers; 
admit there' is a definite lowering' 
of standards in the integrated ^ 
schools. The white children are be 

protect and nn^rvr* if* nVm7^T . JU15 ' xm WJllce emiaren are ne- 
lEtota S cE t mi "£,« *™ to the intelligence 

lo take the offense is our best de- 
fense. In addition, the Commis- 
sion should make a study of race 

white people are the best friends !f ft,]:10uld acquire and publicise the 
he has ever had. It is where tiie j f aets "upon, the characteristics, the 
social question of integration andi 1 ^ ^ 8 ' and tlie native intelligence 

level of the Negroes. A Negro prin 
cipal said: 

1 wonder if it isn't more im- 
portant to American cultural pro- 
gress to sacrifice scholastic stan- 
dards for the additional value of 

E$Jn the Sr-uth cannot staJo« 
tfer on the defensive. This ; V(? 

the American people. 
[They are being hushed up no*w"T^ 


My friends, we can be crushed 

jx the weight of public opinion. 

\$ can only win this fight through 

xavorable public opinion, rifle 

greatest danger is not in tfte 

Court They are politicians and can 

ca«*~must start over, with years would make plans to integraJ^The 

delay. By changing State lawBfcaadtf ty has 22% Negroes. On tleTOai 

creating new State policies whichlevel the people, standing alone, 

must be litigated, and which mustare sternly resisting the Board.. 

go to the Supreme Court of the These two state governments will 

charge th«v «,taT' ^'"r — ([United States, the States can thus not take action to preserve their 

mV^SS„SS3 « e dangm4 Titigate this matter for an indef- sovereignty and to protect their' 

are me ^^ „™„« „ .^ fl ^ ^ fa ^^ Fed . people as they , are -legally obli- 

eral Courts. The State Govern- S ate <* to do * %2®£ integration will; 

|are the organized pressure groups * 
■KvioMUnd behind the Court, the 

ticians. Their propaganda must be 
|met Their power must be counter- 
acted with favorable public opin- 
ion. With favorable public opinion 
we control politicians. We control 
Courts* We control Governments, 
The South's side must be present- 
ed to the nation. We must then mo- 
bilize that opinion into political ac- 
tion. That is why an organization 
of the people, and the Commission 
to generate favorable public opin- 
ion is basic. It is fundamental in 
[ this great controversy. This is one 
great step on the road to victory. 
The effective way to oppose in- 
tegrated schools and this attack on 
a segregated society is through the 
Government of the States. The at- 
tack by the United States Supreme 
Court is directed primarily against 
the States since a school district, 
or a county, is a political subdi- 
vision created by and subject to, 
the will of the States. As long F as 
State Governments stand firm, I 
jhavd) no fear_ of the^ outcome The* 


groups who manipulate the flnfrtfient should defend the suits. As^ccur in Arkansas, an Tennessee, 
~ - ' - i view the matter, it is fundament in any other State where 

tal that each Southern State musfc thl 'pugh fear, ' weakness, inaction, 
adopt a State policy or State pro* or because the state leadership > be- 
gram to retain segregation, and lieves * racial integration, there 
that all the power and resources** no sta , te P ^ to oppose it. Let 
of the State be dedicated to that™ e . sa y here li: would not occur if 
end. Let us look at two Southern their sfcate governments would take 
States and see the effect of action act i on to °Pp ose at ; , „ 
or non-action by the State. The* W? ? re /L pr ? U( ? °? ^ ?? y the 
Supreme Court decision which heldj of{lclal f of Mississippi and the peo- 
segregated schools ■ violated thef e ^ted m ^^ to L counteract 
Kth Amendment to the Constitu^ threat „£> segregated schools, 
tion was directed against a school; G " verno j; Whlte ?? to be -commend- 
«rict in one county in the Stale^ on his creation of the Legal 
S Virginia. Virginia has a grea ^clucational Advisory Committed 
Governor. The people of ,. Virginia^ tjpor| i his delation rf to 
hale strong leadership. 1 A states^emb e ;ship -thereof. Governor- 

... fi jflwisg recommendations which he 

* lhas made to the LEAC. The LEAC 
!has already endorsed the recom- 
1 (continued from p aff e s) - ' mendations, and I sincerely hope 
/ . '. tbat the Legislature will take such 

mission, was appointed which rec- , steps as it feels are wise and pro- 
ommended policies ;for the State : pe r for the realization of these rec- 
ta adopt to. retain segregated ■ ommendations. The white citizens 

Eastland - - 

schools, even though the United 

y so far has been th|fe the \ States Supreme Court had ordered 

encroachments of integrated that the schools in one district of 

Ijsehools .' ! come when a school dis- 
Itrict does not have the support of 
Itne State Government. If we con- 
Itcst at the local level, by indivi- 
dual school districts, or by a conn 

Virginia be integrated or substan- 
tial progress made toward inte- 
grating them. In spite of this de- 
cree there is not an interracial 
school in the State. Virginia has 
a State policy, a State program to 

fy, or on a community basis, wc .'preserve school segregation, I 

larg sitting ducks and will be pick- 
ed off one by one, The State can 
tafce action which the individual 
Jj district cannot. The State antf no 
J one but the State can segregate un- 
lider the police powers, to promote, 
Tithe public health, , raise academic 
(standards, protect the psychologi- 
Ical welfare of the child, prevent 
[violence, promote peaceful and 
|;harmonious race, relations. This 

think there is merit to their pro- 
gram* The people of Virginia have 
the support of their State Govern- 
ment The State of Arkansas has 
noft program to retain segregated 
scMools. There is no State policy. 
T$s -legislature has not acted. One 
high official of the State Govern- 
ment is quoted in the public press 
as stating that it is a matter for 
each school district to decide, and 

of this State, and the children, are 
protected and shielded by the pow- 
er and sovereignty of the State. 
Mississippi led the way and fur- 
nished the example that -others 
haje emulated within the Jrame* 
wcfe of their own State Constitu- 
tion and laws. I take this'oppor- 

rkind of segregation is not basedithat each school district can for- 
I upon race. Remember the Su-iniulate its own policies and con- 
Ipreme Court said segregation sole-,' duct its,own defense. There are fo- 
lly because of race violates the stances ■ of integrated schools in 
14th Amendment The state, if Arkansas. These instances have 
Inecessary, can abolish school dis* occurred against the will of the 
picta, create other ones and tqusigreat majority of the people. The 
Iwrnye the corpus or the basis Jof, 'Supreme Court has not rendered 
[a su#. This would mean the whWel? judgment against a single school 

in the State of Arkansas, yet there 
' are instances of racially integrat- 

ed schools. There are plans to in- 
* tcgrafe in localities in Tennessee 

because that State government has 
no policy or no program to pre- 
serve segregated schools, The! 
Bch«4Jbaard in Chattanooga^which 

tunifcV to pay tribute to those* writ-; 
ers ill Mississippi who have sicken 
out fclearly and courageously on, 
this grave question. I refer specif- 
ically to Major Frederick Sullens 
Mr. Tom Ethridge, and Charlie 

My friends, those who say that 
this inatter can be fought out lo- 
cally, in the different communities, 
whether intentional or not, are al- 
lied with the N. A, A. C, P. Any 
state government which refuses to 
resist the integration of the J schools 
is an ally of the N. A. A. C. P. It 
is basic in this whole controversy 
that the resistance in the Court 
must be by the state governments. 
Any other road will lead to defeat 
and destruction. 

i In this struggle there is a duty 
and responsibility for all of us. 
I think Southern Senators and Con- 
gressmen should unfte to fight 
upon the national scene. We should 
cooperate with the resistance and 
give leadership to Southern peo-i 
pK The way to get this united 1 
ft'onLi^ihrough the organization 

Isliwuld be a national program prcj 
!mjjted by the organized effort a 
fthc people and sponsored by tfy 
Congressional delegation to remover 
by legislative action the illegality! 
which the Court has placed upon! 
segregation. In fact the fight mustj 
be nationwide in scope to submit 
a constitutional amendment to give 
the States and the people control 
of their local institutions and their 
domestic affairs. This is a matter 
of years. Who can say it cannot be 
done? Ten years ago the Supreme' 
Court was unanimous against the 
illegal or unconstitutional aims of 
th N. A. A. a P. 

We will without question fight 
the punitive legislative proposals 
which will attempt to authorize the 
use of Federal force against us.A 
There is certain to be some fa? 
reaching and very radical propos- 
als in he next few years, Proposals 
which would give far reaching 
powers io implement and enforce 
judicial tyranny, We will certainly 
need the Regional Commission to 
expjain them in their true light to 
the J American people. * 

Wle in the Congress have a gf eat ] 
icrum to give the American J)eo-; 
Iple the facts on the South's side] 
of this controversy, and to awaken I 
the right thinking people of thei 
North to the fact that if local self- 
government is destroyed in the 
South, it is also destroyed North 
of* the Mason Dixon Line. Every 
section of the country has its lo- 
cal problems and they should be 
all combined in this legislative 
plan. The way to get this plan and 
to get the South's delegation to 
unite behind it is through the .pow- 
er of a Southern organization such 
?s you Mississippiana have set up, 

My friends, we are involved in 
a great conflict* A fight not only 
to maintain and perpetuate the 
laws, customs, traditions, and the 
culture of our Southern way oi 
life but to restore and revitalize 
the Republican form of govern- 
ment which is the greatest, of our 
heritages from the past. Each oi 
us has an important part to play.! 
Our message must be carried up I 
and down the highways aaad^by-! 
ways of the nation. Right-miri^l 
people, and men of goodwill fr/ 

is self-perpetuating, announceT1t| °* fhe * People in the States. There! 


e^eft^orner of this country 1 will- 
join with us. There can be no out- 
come but total and complete vic- 

, We have reached an era of "ju- 
dicial tyranny". Anglo-Saxon peo- 
ple, from their earliest origins, 
have held steadfast to the belief 
that "resistance to tyranny is obe- 
dience to God". This resistance 
was the foundation of those glor- 
ious events in. the history of free- 
dom that led from the Magna 
Cliarta, to the American Revolu- 

Under our common law and un- 
der our Constitution, no man or 
body of men may make law for 
free men except the elected repre- 
sentatives of the people. The Su- 
preme Court is not composed of 
elected representatives of the 
South or any other segment of this 
nation. Its present tyranny will not 
only be resisted but overcome. 

Southern people have been test- 
ed in the past and have not been 
found wanting. They have met the 
challenge of tyranny with courage 
and fortitude. Henry W, Grady, a 
great and eloquent leader, in a 
past time of trouble, described the 
character and spirit that per- 
meates the Southern people. It was 
true in 1889 when spoken; it is! 
true today. He said: 4 

W there is any human force' 
thjt cannot be withstood, it ij the! 
Ipofrer of the banded intelligence 1 

and responsibility of a free^wwn- 
munity. Against it, numbers and 
corruption cannot prevail. It can- 
not be forbidden in the law^ or di- 
vorced in forcel It is the inalien- 
able right of every free commun- 
ity, It is on this, sir, that We rely 
in the South, Not* the cowardly 
menace of mask or shotgun, but 
the peaceful majesty of intelli- 
gence and responsibility, massed 
and united for the prote^ioa of 
ltd homes and the preservation of 
its liberty." 



j»^fctag4» behind the caa^MfeA 
groups who manipulate the poli- 

RAf lAl. VlfiLFNf.F The South > he declared, "has 

mistreat no one ... we< are 

|*StaatarAddrftsseaRally o*» ( rou ? J <rf °"* *yjtem • ,. .why 

1 _, , - fl should we not advertise and ex-, 

Citizens Councils plain it." \* 

■< 4 Rigtit> Expressed 

By W. F. MINOB , Eastland said that the Southern! 

T^™JSr ^^Correspondent) f & ateg havg both < ^ ,^ gal right ,i ; 
JACKSON. Miss. Dec. 1 - Mis- and the „ Iegal duty „ to cmte a ! 
isissippi's white citizens councils Southern regional commission 
I were told here Thursday by U. S. and finance its activities. „ with 
IjSen. James 0. Eastland that i£ public funds. 
I'they resort to "violence and law- '"-N" 8 * s an attach on the sov- 
lessness" in frying to V^^LtX^ttZ 
J segregation "these acts will be ;3egal auty to pro tect its sov- 
■ turned * against us by our !ereignty/* he declared, 
[enemies." , One point which such a com- 

Eastiand told a statewide rally mission should stress he said is 

| of the citizens councils that the 
South needs a regional commis- 
sion backed by public funds to 

|i swing national opinion against in- 

- tegration. 

that "interracial schools lower 
the educational standards of chil- 
dren and has a bad psychological 
effect upon pupils of both races." 
In Washington, IX C, which' he 

-, This proposal was quickly en-!f ld wa * chown by -the Eiseh- 

|! dorsed by the rally, which fell far he> ^ er ^ministration as a lab- 

Ishort of the anticipated 10,000 mtxxy to demonstrate to the 

guttering. Officials of the Jack- ^ orl( * ho ^ easily integration .and 

sin city auditorium said around tf™^^ ™° m work," Cabinet 

2|D0 attended the rally. J™& lead j«f, government Officials 

*w ae +i ft ^ ea ^ +w +h* rt ifw,J 5tj lI send their children lb seg- 

Eastland said that the citizens ceg ^ ted schoo3s . | . * 

council movement launched msF -? 

Mississippi to preserve segrega-J 
Hon at the local level represents * 
the "hard core of resistance'* to 

I integration of the races which ex- 
ists in the South. ' 

Advise* Offensive 
: "The NAACP well knows that 

I .the organization of, our people has 
been highly successful," he de- 

I clared. 

But he warned that "in this 

liight no one should be mistreat- 
ed^' adding that violence could 
be "effectively used to mould 

J public opinion > against us in the 

§ North," 

On a broad scale, he said, the 

I. South must launch a counter of- 

Ijfensive to the integration drive of 

lithe NAACP and other organiza- 

Itions by "presenting the SouuYs 

[sidfc to the nation" and by "mobi- 
lising this, opinion into political 


ifche biggest danger to keeping 

- sjferegation in the South, he sdid,. 
"jfe not in the court— it is the'pr- 
anized pressure groups ^)ho 



Mr. Tolson 
Mr, Nichols. 
Mr. Board 
Mr. Behn%& 
* Mr. Ma^ciT. 
Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Papons 

Mr. Rispii „ 

Mr. Tamm, 

Mr. N- d-.e 

Mr. Wintenwd„ 

Tele., Room 

Mr. Holloman 


^ ww 

/ '■■ 

>& DEC 29 .955 




'K v 




12/2/55 O? 

■Page 38 Col. 1 

j k 




DEC 21955 


\ t "4 


0-19 (7-8-55) 


/ V 

J /r f /' 


34 - ■ ■ Friday, December 2, 1955 - ' &**- 

fegregation Foe 

JACKSON, Miss,. Dec. 1 Iff) 
Sen. James Eastland (D-Missi) 
today urged a rally of Missis- 
sippi Citizens Councils to organ- 
ize a gigantic offensive to over- 
turn what he called the "mon- 
strous, crime*' committed by the 

• U. % Supreme Court when it 
outjiwed racial segregation. 

Southern states must join 
thaid Is in a regional commission 

«to present the SoutlVs viewpoint 
and the organization should be 

/*3 : 

\(0^ ; 




financed with public funds, he 

4 "There can be no outcome but 
total and complete victory/* Mis- 
sissippi's senior Senator said in 
a speech at a state-wide Citi- 
zens Council meeting here. 

The councils are groups 
catedto keeping racial seg 

tion in all walks of life. ' 

claim about 7O;G00 members in 
Mississippi, where the first 
council was organized. 

Eastland said the "judicial 
tyranny" of the Supreme Court 
can be defeated by an aroused 
and organized South. 

The Senator urged council 
members to ajjoid violence* 

Louisiana Upheld 

In Using State Funds 

BATON ROUGE, La., Dec, 1 
Ml— A state district judge up- 
held, today Louisiana's right to 
.spencft $100,000 to fight school 
Jntegtation, jf » ; 

! JudUe Coleman Lindsey up- 
Jield he state's motion injdis-! 
f missing the suit brought byi thej 
I National Association for thePAd-f 
svancement of Colored People) 
'against the ^100,000 fund. 1 

\ .The EfAACP v had, challenged 
; the- fund voted by the Board of 
[Liquidation of State Debt and 
I approved by the Legislature. 

Segregation Ordered ^^ 

In Kentucky Suit 

LOUISVILLE, Ky„ Dec. 1 m 
The first suit seeking an end to 
segregation in Kentucky's pub- 
lic schools ended today in favor 
of Negro pupils in Adair 
{County. ■ » 

Federal District Judje Mac 
Swij ford ruled the coun y mus W 
tl at I the earliest praj :ticable 
:datf| " comply with the Supreme 
Coujft decision outlawing segre- 




Mr. Tolson 

Mr, Boardman 
Mr. Nichols _ 
Mr. Belmont — 

Mr. Harbo 

Mr. Mohr 

/7Mr. Parsons - 

JvjMr/l Rosen J^ 

"Mr.. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoo 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman 
Miss Gandy 


126 DEC 8 1955 

/ - p 





Wash. Post and/ 

Times Herald 
Wash. News — 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald - 

N. Y. Mirror _ 
Daily Worker — 

The Worker 

New Leader — 


/ K? 


0-19 (11-22-55) 


Segregation Fofe! 

■a \ 

Urges Tax Help 

JACKSON?, Miss.. Dec. 1 ffl 
Sen. James Eastland (D-Miss;) 
today urgei a rally of Missis- 
sippi Citizens Councils to organ- 
ize a gigantic offensive to over- 
turn what he called the "mon- 
strous crime" committed by the 
T£ S, Supreme Court when it 
outlawed racial segregation* 

* Southern states must join 
I tahds in a regional commission 

* o present the South's viewpoint 
itnd the organization should bei 

financed with public funds, he 

"There can be no outcome but 
total and- complete victory," Mis- 
sissippi's senior Senator said in 
a speech at a state-wide Citi- 
zens Council meeting here. 

The councils are groups dedi- 
cated to keeping racial segrega- 
tion in all walks of life. They 
claim about 70,000 members in 
Mississippi, where the first 
council was organized. 
r Eastland said the "judicial 
tyranny" of the Supreme Couf t 
can be defeated by an arous^ 
| nd organized. SoUth, 
( The Senator urged coun 
Members to avoid violence, 

, Mr. Toisdn *fr 

<l/ * Mr Rnrrrrlmrm^ V 

Mr, Boardman 
^Q^yMr. Belmont \/ 


Mr. Mason 
Mr. Mohr 
Mr. Parsons 
Mr. Rosen 
Mr. Tamm 
Mr. Sizoo . 

Mr. Winterrowd . 
Tele. Room — 
Mr. Holloman — 
Miss Gandy 

f / 





K6 DEC 7 1255 

Wash. Post and -? y 

Times Herald 

Wash. News 

Wash. Star 

N, Y. Herald . 


N.. Y. Mirror 

N. Y. Daily News 

Daily Worker 

The Worker _^ = 

New Leader 

Date g££ — g-435*? 




[Council Membersr 

[Segregation Group 

U. S, Senator James 0. East-lleaders of the nation are- insin- 
lland, speaking before the first cere in their efforts to obtain de- 
■statewide assembly of the Missis- segregation. r t t 

Isippi Citizens* Councils here Thurs- "Even President Eisenhower, 
Iday, recommended that the Sou- despite his advocacy of mtegra- 
1 tion of the races, is* sending his 

own grandchildren to an all-white 
Episcopal school in Alexandria, 
Va., Eastland declared. 

"The politicians from the Presi- 
dent down want integration for the 
other fellow, but not for themsel- 
ves/' Eastland declared. 

He spoke to some 3,000 people 
seated in the Municipal Auditor- 
ium here, paying tribute to the. 
Citizens', Councils for efforts to 
stive the race question sanely and 
lt( We have nothing to be asham> 

reason will be found in theTfaACF 
camp," Caskey said. 

He said that he believes the 
J Councils will solve the problem 
of warding off integration. 

Caskey also attacked teachers 
[who are "brainwashing" students 
land said that so long as P».-P. M. 
TOeiSon is president of Mississippi 

Senator Eastland's address 
before the Citizens' Councils 
meeting in Jackson Thursday 
is printed in full on Pages 4, 5 
and 6, Section 2. 

thern states form a regional com- 
mission to "answer attacks upon 
I us."4 . 

He? declared that the political 

Mr, ToIsoil 
Mr. Nichols. 

Mr, BoardmaiL-^. 

Mr* Belmont L 

Mr. Mason 

ed of in out efforts to maintain 
the integrity of the white race/' 
he declared. "We must expose the 
NAACP as a tool of Communism* 
and the Negro as the .pawn." 

Congressman John Bell Wil- 
liams, of Raymond, master of cer 
emonies, told the audience that 
"a marked change is being seen 
in the attitude of many people in 
other sections as they learn the 
truth about de-segregation." 

He said that he is proud to be 
a member of the Mississippi Cit 
izens Council, and that' there will 
soon be a million members in the 

"" fCoH ege, a Baptists institution, 
there will be no "pink" teachings 

The Council on recommendation 
of John Satterfield, president ofi 
the Mississippi State Bar, adopted; 
a six-point resolution calling, for: i 

1. Prohibition of common-law I 
marriages by statute; 

2. Repeal of the compusory 
school attendance law. 

3. Provide penalties for barratry, 
maintenance and champerty, un- 
authorized practice of law and agi- 
tation of court suits to end segre- 

4 Provide penalties for persons 
interfering with state law under 
color of federal authority. 

5. Provide penalties for abusive 
and obscene telephone calls and de 
fink and provide^ penalties far 
criminal libel 

el Creation of a state authority 
for the maintenance of segrega- 

These recommendations were 
announced as part of the program 
of the incoming Gov. X P. Cole- 

Mayor Allen C. Thompson issued 
a welcome to the Citizens' Coun- 
cil ^membership, stating that he is 
himself a member and proud of 

No 1 other members of the Con- 
gressional delegation were pres- 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons 

Mr. Rosen 

Mr* Tamm 

Mr. Nease „ 

Mr. Winterrowd^ 
Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman 

Miss Gandy. 

Senator John Stennis and Con-ent, but all wired their regrets, 
gressmen Colmer, Whitten, Ab-gvmg reasons for their absence, 
frnethy, Winstead and Smith tele-?ach announced himself heartedly 
graphed greetings and support tg^f^^J? VB ^ e8 ° f ^ 

and Lt Gov. Carro 1 Gartm ^^ xvoll Gartin and House Speaker 
present and Gov. - . elect J. P. Cole- ^ m ^ ^ 
man sent regrets that illness pre- imately ?5 memhers f the new 
vented his presence. legislature were in attendance at 

Another speaker, Prof, w- M meetin ^ Ex>Goy . Fie lding L. 
Caskey, of Mississippi College v tola\ Yri ^^ s also a promin enHa^ 
the Council membership that he, f ' f 
could not go along with Adlai ^t^ naanE * 
iveftson as the Democratic candi- 

E)lis W. Wright, president of the. 
Jackson Citizens' Council opened 
the! meeting as the head of the h|)st. 
Cofacil. I * 

ikie full, text of Senator East- 
land's Jiour and 15-minute speecji 
is* given inside. 

126 DEC lf> -355 

DEC i 

,1-ii.tU ... 


Ciuncils - - - 

(Conttoned From Page One) 

date for president, and that Sen. 

Estes Kefauver* of Tennes3«jr4s 

**ndsrepr«;enting the South."_ 

FHE CLARION-LEDGER ike charged that the Sout h is not 

I JACKSON, HISS. s>, united in Congress and that the 

II2/2/55 : -V-* Mississippi delegation is the only 

^ago 1 Cols* i(&4jLOT 

* ~~ * rcjmfuMh - - 

*** -* "jVhfn the chtps are down, Ste- 




[Message To Rest Of U. S. 


JACKSON, Miss. (AP)^Sen. James Eastland (D-Miss.) today urged a rally of Citi- 
zens Council members to. organize a gigantic offensive to overturn what he called th« 
: "monstrous crime" committed by the U. S. Supreme Court when it outlawed racial 
< segregation. Southern states must joinhands in a regifmal commission to presfit 
j tfte South's viewpoint, and the organization should be f jbanced with public funds, 

he said. "There can be no 
outcome but total and com- 
plete victory," Mississippi's 
senior senator said in a speech In 
Jackson Municipal Auditorium. 

The Councils are groups dedi- 
cated to keeping racial segrega- 
tion in all walks of life. They claim 
about 70,000 members in Mississip- 
pi, where the first Council was or- 

Eastland said the "judicial ty- 
ranny" of the Supreme Court can) 
be defeated by an aroused and or-i 
ganized South. ! 

Must Tafce Offense ! 


JACKSON, Mto. Wl-Efae Citi- 1 
sens Council rally approved today 
a proposal to form an organiza- 
tion stretching- across the Sotith J 
to fight what Sen* Eastland (D- 
Misw.J called the "monetrota 
crime" committed by the XT. S. 
Supreme Court when it outlawed 
racial segregation. 

file of the people of the North be- 
jlieve exactly as we do* The law 
of nature is on our side," East* 
'land told a* crowd of about 2,500.' 

The crowd, estimated by a po- 
lice officer, fell far below the 
hoped-for 10*000 and left about t,000 
empty seats in the auditorium, j 

Sen. Eastland was introduced by 
Hep. John Bell Williams (D-Missh 
I He said "the drive for racial 
amalgamation i* both illegal 4tnd 
Mmoral, and those who would Idx 
litoe children of both races, in nut 
{Continued On Paga $W ■ 


;Page 1 Cols, 6 - £ 


Defensive action "is the road to- 
destruction and death," said Bast- 
land, "We must take the offense. 
We must carry the message tO'ew 
ery^saKtlon of the United StaM 



i* % 

*4,MM9 1956 




DEC 51955 




126 JAN 9 1956 ^ 


\\ "V 





lEASILAHft— « , 

(Continued from page 1 1) 
I schools are following ah illegal, it?,- 
•moral and sinfuJ doctrine;*' 

' "In time of grave troubles, you; 
ha ( veV**acted in keeping<*w4tt* the! 
finest: and highest traditions of ourf 
state and region." | 

The present drive to integrate] 

/^SenrlnflaXsness ^SSSSST^ '** ** ^ 

|>urt this organization/* he «aid, sfc ™^^f* ftttempfc te havel 

"These acts are turned against Us< ^JSi'm. Wa *fc SSi * rf^ff Recon 

by our enemies. They are Whw«*g£g^ *f*£fo ^* ** C0U ' 

&£* u° s S°tne Cth » entimenti ^SeseSt dSve, he added, "is 
, *^a^J£*^.*«. ^ more dangerous (because) the 

The South must get public opin- 
ion on its side, he said. 

"It is the responsibility of the 
organization also to do- all it can 
;£o prevent violence and to prevent 
jjthe mistreatment of any man/' 
'Eastland declared. "The fight we 
i wage must be a Just and legal 

He said Mississippi ha* a better. 

record of law enforcement than 

| the Northern states which criticize 

ft Missisippi. "Our state enforces the 1 

laW Without favor/' he said. 

more dangerous ....... 

present court decisions are built 
upon gradualism; to induce us to 
agree or 1 to force us to comply step 
by step. 

*'Itt ^Reconstruction there was the 
attempt to force the hideous mob- 
ster upon us all at once. Our an- 
cestors rallied and stopped it. . 

"Its weakness then was that theyj 
attempted to enforce it all at once J 
It will take special precautions to! 
guard against, the gradual accept-f 
ance,' and the erosion of our rights 

■d «H*„;i^ *™™ M i *™ « £\»-,m * through the deadly doctrine of 
Eastland's proposal for a- region- mdl £it~ .»» 
al commission to present the South- £ ra <auansm, 

^ilfrr^l £4^AfriJt^h£ COUNCILS APPROVE 
posal he made last year during hist 6 _ P0INT program 

campaign for re-election. 

JACKSON, Miss, m — The first 

"Public funds should be used/' , statewide rally of Citizens Councils; 

he sadd. "In fact, the use of pub- 

lic funds is the only way we can 
get the resources to answer the 
vast attack and to cope with the 

|'| tremendous sums that are being 
jused to misrepresent us and to in* 
flame the public mind against us. 

I I "We have nothing to be ashamed 
of. We mistreat no ;one. We are 
proud,, of our system. J 

"Why should we not advjjrtise 

andlexplaia it?** Eastland atfked. 

Southern states have a duty, as 

well* as right, to use public funds 

in its campaign, he added, 

The drive for integration "is an 
attack upon the sovereignty of the 
states • . /' 

The senator said his colleagues 
in Congress from the South should 

, unite "to fight upon 1 the national 

• "We should cooperate with the 
resistance and give leadership to 
Southern people/* 

Arkansas and Tennessee said 
Sen. Eastland, are faced with in- 
tegration against the wished of the 

today approved *a , six-point pro-' 

grata, to help keep segregation in 

TJ&e recommendation, presented 
by John C, Satterfield, president 
of the Mississippi Sta/te», Bar,, are 
essentially the same as Gov>elect 
J. F, Coleman urged the Legal 
Educational Advisory Committee 
to adopt. 

The program includes:" 

1. Prohibition of comihon-law 

i 2. Repeal of compulsory school 
attendance law. f 

3, Provide penalties for barratry, 
maintenance and champerty, unau- 
thorized practice of law and agit- 
tiori of court suits, to end segreg- 

4, Provide penalties for persons 
interfering with state law under 
color of federal authority, 

5. Provide' pealties' for abusive 
and obscene telephone calls and 
define and provide penalties for, 
criminal libel. 

6. Creation of a state autTioiilj 

majority of their citiaens because for & e maintenance f segrega- 
te states failed to organize, , tion f V 

"Eacial integration will occur in ' i 
Arkansas, in Tennessee, or in any 
other state where through fear, 
weakness, inaction * . . there 3s no 
state policy to oppose it/' he said 
Sen. Eastland complimented his 
home state of Mississippi and Vir- 
ginia for moving to overturn the 
Supreme Courts decision on a 
state level 

' "Mississippi led ihe way and fur- 
nished the example thai others 
have emulated . * ./' E as t land 

■ ^said. 
| To Council members, he said, 

, ["when history writes its final ver- 
dict on this present generation of 
JMississippians and Southerners, fthe 

„ rimes of you !&<dle$ and genf e- 

j ruen * * « will have a very hfeh 

* ? place upon the roll of honor. 



Ifelland Calk 

Of' 'Court Grime' 


■ JACKSOIf, Miss. C^l — Sen. James 
Eastland <D-Miss) today urged a 
■{rally, of Citizens Council members 
;!to organize a gigantic offensive to 
overturn what he called the "mon- 
strous crime" committed by the 
•TJ. S. Supreme Court when it out- 
lawed racial segregation* 
'Southern states must Join hands 
.ito a regional commission to pre- 

theinistreatment ot an&^man, 
Easttalid declared. "The fight we 
wage must be a just and legal 

He said,Mississippi has a better 
record of law enforcement than 
the Northern* states which. criticize 
Mississippi, "our state enforces the 
law without favor," he said., 

Eastland's; proposal for a region- 
al commission to present the South 

aflttae' or to force us to coajjdx^tep 
by step, 

"In Reconstruction there was the 
attempt to force the hideous mon- 
ster upon us all at once, bur an- 
cestors rallied and stopped it. 

"Its weakness then was that they 
attempted to enforce it all at once. 
It will take special precautions to 
guard against the gradual Accept- 

— „ — »... W » VM «w j^^owiu uiic ouuMi- 6w«**u »s»«wu uuc gi,auuai accepc- 
em viewpoint is similar to a pro- ance, and the erosion o c our righfes 

sent the South's viewpoint, and the! - ^L h ^f » oa £tosr ^ ashamed 
organization should he financed. of - ?e mistreat no- dne. We >are 

(organization should be financed 
Pwith public funds, he said* 
I, "There can be no outcome but 
J total and complete victory/' Mis- 
■fsissippi's senior senator said in a 
I' speech prepared for delivery in 
■I Jackson Municipal Auditorium 

posal he made last year during,, ibfcfflrough the deadly doctrine 
campaign for re-election. . (gradualism." 

"Public funds should be used," 
he said. "In fact, the use of putK 
lie funds is the only way we can 
get the resources to answer the f 
vast attack and to cope with the) 
tremendous sums that ai?e being 
used to misrepresent us and to fc>j 
J flame the public mind against us. 

"We have nothing to -be ashamed 

Sfr. Tolson 

Mr. Nicholt ^ j 

JWr. BoardmtalZ^j 
Mr, BelmQntjZZl 

Mr. Ma*.n 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr* Parsons 

Mr* Eosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. N<saee 

Mr. Winfcerrowd- 

f e!e. fioom 

Mr. Ho«o«*n_ 
Uibb G»ndy„ 

proud of our system. 

"Why should we not advertise 
and explain it? 1 * Eastland asked 

Southern states have a duty, ?<> 
well as right, to use public funds 
in its campaign, he added. 

The drive for integration "is an 

>vu* n sa, vZmI Z . r«r„VTfl ±ae arive lor migration "is an 

ca^ e twx^-snws: saj upo s *■' "**** of ** 

tion in all walks of life. They claim, tjJ senate «»m Ti«« * rt n A *<«™ 

(pi where the first Council was oj>, unite « to flg . ht ^n ithe mttonal 
gawped, .scene." 

' 4 s H ,an * J* 1 ! the "J u * eI f- #-• ."We should cooperate with the 
:be defeated by an aroused and or- southern people '* 
;ganized South, - Arkansas and* Tennessee said 

Defensive action "is the road to> Sen . Eastland, are faced wtih in 

fi destruction and death," said East- 
J i land. "We must take the offense. 
I:We must carry the message to ev* 
I'ery section of the United States. 
1 '"Our position is righteous. The 

tegration against the wishes of the 
majority of their citizens because 
fee states failed to organize. 

"Hacial integration will occur In 
Arkansas, in Tennessee, or in any 

a grew majority of the rank and f neither state where through fear 
(of the people of the North believeWkness, ^ cilm , ™£ «^ 

^fr J5 ^ hhL fnr r^iL Sen ' ?astland complimented hi. 

, He said the drive for raciajhome state of Mississippi and Vir- 
amalgamation is both illegal and;. gmia for tt0vttg to 7 ertu £ ^ 

Minora .and those >who woulc: mix s uprem e Courts decision on a 

; little cnildren of both races in our state j eV el 

f schools are foUowing ah illegal, im« "Mississippi led the way and fur- 

moral and sinful doctrine.; nished the example that other s 

The senator urged CouncU mem- have emulated . f ./' Eastland 

| bers to avoid violence. sa id. *»"« 

.Violence and lawlessness, will to Council members ha ,«lm 
tot this organization- he saw. 'W wSS*^tft flSa^ 
"These acts are toned ^gainst us.Jct on this present generation of 
IT our enemies. They are effective, disslsslvpims and Southerners, the 
?«S *» f°^ d P^ "ottawADaaw of you ladies' and ge^ 
against us in the North." men ... will have a verv hisb 

The- south must get public opin-; P i aC e upon fee roll of hono?. * 

?.Tf P V1 Side ' he ,i a ,5 d ; . *. i " to ^e of » ra ve troubles, you 
."It is the responsibility of 1fiie;have reacted in keeping with t^e 

ffe^-f 30 ^ d ^ + aU tt *lh finest **» highest M^ of o^ 
tq prevent violence and to prevdnti state and region " 

LAUREL lBAm-0^ ih?-^^ 


P^ge 22 




dangerous than Civil War Recon- 
struction days* 
rt „ V ■ _ t "There was no attempt to have 

ColS# 6 & 7 lnteT:p " c ^l schools during ftecon- 
x struction,*' he said. 

The present drive, he added, "is 

morej dangerous (because) the 

preset court decisions are built 

fadualism to induc*-^*-to 




cor mzconoED 
3 JAN 9 1956 












* / '' ; - ( - i '-i3fei$| 

Hr, TU-on 

Mr, Nicola — ~ | 
[ Mr. Board^m - 

| Mr- Belmont 

Mr. Mason — - 
Mr. Mohr- 

j Mr. Parsons 

Mr. Rosen. 

£r. Tatnm 

\ Jto/^- 

A. Wintcrrowd^ 

M^S&A ^ r - Hclloaian 

W 7 

1.38 utc v 19S& 

o v -*s^ S**"""""' "~ rr ""' 


„/,..., DEC1 1955. 

it >H vv iu"ili) ix a . a 3r.i>i v-rsios 

*£C } 

/ ftV ' Sot 5E. «-.-•■•• 

'jKSut-w. - '^ 6 


New York Post Correspondent 

Belzoni, Miss., Dec. 1— The of- 
ficial spokesman for Belzoni's 
white Citizens Council said bland- 
ly today his organization would 
not Abject if a Negro like Gus 
Courfls voted here— "if he was 

Citilens Councilman C. L. 
Puckett said it— and laughed. 

He knew two Mississippi facts 
of life; * 

The way the slate voting" law 
is applied make it impossible for 
a Negro to, cast a ballot in Bel- 
zoni. Even if that. Jaw wasn't 
on the books, almost, all Negroes 
here would stay away from the 
polls— in fear of things like shot- 
gun blasts in the- night 

Puckett discussed the pro seg- 
regation doctrines of the Council 
as Courts, 65, the second Belzoni 
NAACP leader to be shotgunned 

after, agitating for the right to] 
vote, made plans: to return here 1 


tomorrow from a Negro hospital 
in Mound Bayou, 75 miles to the 
north. \ 

"We deplore the Courts shoot- 
ing: and . any other violencfi/* 
Puckett said, then Jmlled a Coup- 
ca'"membership card out ot lusj 
wallet and read; front it. 


44 'Dedicated to the maintenance 
of peace, good order and domes 
tic ^tranquility . . , and the pres 
ervsStion of states rights/ And 
you ttpan add— in a legal and or- 
derly manner/' 

Puikett is a neat bespectacled 
young tax consultant who speaks 
With a nervous affability. He 
had walked around the corner to 
meet the Post reporter in the of- 
fice of Gladstone Mortimer, 
wealthy planter and farm imple- 1 
ment dealer who is chairman of I 

the Belzoni Citizens' Council. f 
They said 1,200 white men in I 
Humphreys County belong to the! 
Council This is all but a handful 
of the adult white male popula-i 
tipn. T\ ! 
"Why would I want a twolbit! 
nigger shot?— a, mess like tftis! 
hurts my business," said Mofti-i 
mer; "A killing is the last thing 
m the world any of us CouncU 
leaders would want" 
Then Mortimer tilted his hat 
Continued on 'page 1$ 


Continued frotii pag&S 
back and leaned forward in his 
chair. He is a, bigr man and' he 
look|d very determined* Me had 
madfr pleasantries a few Minutes 
bef oik but there was .no trace of 
gooduhumor in his eyes nSw. 

"B&t I'll give up my business 
and move if there is ever any 
integration here/' he said, 

Puckett blandly explained that 
the Council ''really doesrit have 
to have an official policy on nigra 
voting because there are no quali- 
fied nigra voters here." The state 
law makes certain of thai j 

The law, which went- into effect j 
last January,, requires that any 
voter must be able to interpret 
any part of the Mississippi Con- 
stitution. The interpretation must 
beMn writing and it must satisfy 
election officials of both the couri-i 
ty and state; 

"Z don't know of any nigras 
that have passed that part of 
the requirement," Euckett 

Have any white people ever 
failed it? 

"Yes," he said, "but I can't 
think of their names offhand;* 

A considerable .number of Ne- 
groes had become legally quali- 
fied as Mississippi voters in 19o4 
following talk by Negroes of tak- 
ing federal action. The new law 
takes care of that. One provision 
makes all the 1954 registrations 

Must Register Again 

Those 1954 registrants - mav 
now reregister if the- pass the 
qualification test. Whites pass it 
Negroes do not 

Humphreys County's popula- 
tion is 70 per cent Negro, but no 
Negro has used a ballot box here 
since the 1870s. 

Puckett and Mortimer spoke 
of Belzoni with pride and invited 
Northerners to visit Humphreys 
County. * 

Humphreys County] although 
ipt by any means la typical; 
cbunty of the South, isltypical of 
:he Mississippi delt$ cbuhty. At 
its highway entrances' , are over- 
head signs .decorated with a 
heart "Heart of Delta"— -that's 
what they call Belzoni. 

The Mayor of Belzoni — a. 
planter, cotton- buyer and Citizens 
Council leader named Gerner 
Shannon— estimated today that 
more than 90 per cent of the peo- 
ple in this town of 4,000 "make 
their living off of cotton." j 

$3 a Day for Workers 

The able-bodied. Negroes w 
the 4,000 , (about 1,800 Ne 
Mayor\Shannon estimated) 
in thei cotton fields about ™, w 
months^ during the year/ During 
cotton-chopping time in the sum- 
mer they can earn up to $3 a day. 
During cotton-picking time in the 
fall they are paid up to $3 for 
eaqh 100 pounds of cotton they 

The best pickers, some plant- 
ers 'say, make- from $6 to $10 a 
day Some planters complain 
that Negroes have jacked up the 
price by refusing to pick for less. 
There is not as much share- 
cropping as there used to be : in 
the delta. The Mayor guessed' 
that at least half of the cotton 
harvested in Humphreys County 
this year was grown on five big- 
plantations by hired hands. Those 
plantations range in size from 
2,000 to 4,000 acres. 
. The big plantations employ 
workers by the day* When there 
is np work,, there is no pay. As- , 
suming aby-the-day farm laborer | 
works for $3 a day, he mightl 
make as much as $384 duringtfhe 

' Many Negroes (and a smaller 
number of whites) still work "on 
shares" just as in the old- days. * 
This is done on a 50-50 basis* I 

One planter cited his arrange- 
ment with a Negro family as ah^ 

The /family of Negroes, \ hich 
ha,d Gve or six membefs old, 
enpugh to work in the Jelds, 
INed on 14 acres of cotton and; 
IB ring the year *erw?eji har< 

vests the planter gave the head 
f of the family "about $35 a month 
as fufcnish money," This mony 
was tt keep the family in food 
and clothing until the cropWas 
sold. I 8 

j Fourteen bales of cotton \ete 
picked from 14 acres,, said fehe* 
planter, and those were sold for 
$150 each? this brought in $2,100. 
By halving this, the Negro re- 
ceived $1,050 for his family work 
during the yean 

When a Negro hian marries a 
wife who is hot fertile, his in- 
come naturally drops. A man and 
his wife, if they have no children, 
can effectively work no more 
than six acres. 

This means that thecpuple's in* 
come will be about $450 a year- 
assuming the weather is good 
and the boll weevils don't get at - ' 
their crop. 

A visit to the Mayor's office un* 
covered the fact that not all the 
white citizens- of Humphreys 
County join in the invitation o$ \ 
Puckett and Mortimer to Nopth- * 
erners to visit this particular part i 
of the country, }, 

A Different Attitude 

. An elderly planter named. X A ■ 
Patridge expressed a different at- i 
titude while chatting with .the. ; 
Post reporter at the office of i 
Mayor Shannon. * 

"These white Northerners that J 
come down here poking theiir 
nose around— one'll be thrown in 
the river some of these days/' he \ 
said. ' 

The Post reporter tried * to 
laugh engagingly,, hoping -he 
meant it as a joke. 

"V& rather throw some- of them 
ia the rier than some niggers I 
mow," said another planter who 
hud accompanied Patridge to 
Slannonte office to gefcsome cot- 
tofc samples judged forlvalue. 

The Mayor heard th&se senti- 
ments and voiced no disagree- 
ment . i 

The Mayor is a sandy-haired, 
ruggedly handsome man of 
about 40 who has lived in Bel- 
zoni since his family moved' down 
from Memphis in 1931. 

jfatridge, who said he "never 
saw the inside of a school till I 
was 221" was a Baptist preicher 
as wehYas planter for 30 Sears 
or ^so until his health declined 
receritlyX \ 

"There^ nothing we wont* do 
for a good nigger;" Mayor Shan- 
non said. "K they thought they 
could do Better, they could leaver 
There's no fence around here. 
There's no .chains on anybody;" 

The Mayor and the two plant- 
ers advanced opinions that an 
educated Negro wouldn't want to 
go to school with whites, that 
most Negroes" morals were bad, 
and that Gus Courts likely was 
shot by Negro agitators who 
wanted to end segregation. # # 

They agreed oh this definition 
of a "good nigger." 

"One you can trust, one Who'll 
do what you tell him ^o doj one 
who'll stick out his contract to 
do his work, one who has at least 
f average principles morally and 
won't Hve with a woman unless 
she's his wife, and one who 
doesitft have the idea of sending 
his children to school with white 

' "A nigger "is a nigger and 
thate what he'll always be/' ?af> 
ridge • said emphatically. "YoU 
can't make a white man out of a . 
nigger any more than you can 
make a nigger out of a white 
man*"- , , 

1 Humphreys County has two 
small' towns in addition- to Bel- 
zoni— Isola and Louise. £ach 
town has a few comfortable look- 
ing houses and a great many 
shanties. These towns are sur- 
rounded by thousands, of acres of 
fiat, rich delta land. J 

The shacks out on the land are 
lopsided, tin-roofed structures of 
rain-grayed wood and tarpaper 
falsified to look like brick. The 
house's are far apart. They look 
little square piles of d sbris 
>y some natural disaster 
is a flood or windstorm, but 
e houses; 



Contribution to NAACP 

| not take part in controversial or- 
ganizations. «•*-**■«— 

RHVf ATT B'PI I EI?* " They (FalstafJC) were hu *t con- 

DU I l/U 11, DfiLillrt^aerably by the publicity they 

_ f got," said Wright 

Brewing Firm Clears Upf Irl st Louis G ™sedieck said 

Falstaff sent a $500 contribution 
to NAACP* April 21,0954, for a 
membership for the Negro sales- 
man at his .request 

"When , Falstaff management 
learned that the membership in 
NAACP had been listed in the 
name of Falstaff Brewing Corp., 
.the NAACP was directed to re- 
move the corporation's name 
Grlesedieek said. 

JACKSON, Miss., Nov, 30 m — 
A citizens council official said 
Wednesday a letter from the Fal- 
staff Brewing Co. probably will 
end what he called a scattered 
boycott of Falstaff beer in Mis- 
sissippi, - 

Ellis W. Wright, president of f from its rolls, 

Mr* Tolsoh- 

Mr. Nichols. 




Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parson: 

Mr, Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Neas* 

Mr. "Winterrowd- 

Tele. Room 

Mr, Holloman„ 
Miss <J5\dy_ 


the Jackson citizens council, said| He conceded some sales resist- 
ance to Falstaff had developed in 
Mississippi recently after word) on 
the contribution was circuited) 
but said ft was impossible atjhis! 
time to determine the extent off 

the St. Louis Brewing firm of 
ficials "now have repudiated the 

He quoted from a letter whirl 
he said was written by Joseph 
Griesedieck, Falsfaff president, 
denying membership in the m- 
tional Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Colored People. , 

Fa* staff sales in Mississippi; 
duriiig recent weeks dropped, 
said#Wright, after the White Sen- 
tinel, a pro-segregation pamphlet 
published in St Louis, said Fal- f 
staff contributed'to the NAACP ' 
and was a member, 

A ( t the news conference he call- 
ed Wednesday, Wright said citi- 
zens councils organizations ftrm-! 
ed to help keep segregation, did! 
not advocate or promote Ahe al-J 
leged boycott. , , 

The letter read to newsmen by] 
Wright, a Jackson funeral di- 
rector said: "Falstaff, on the ap- 
peal of one of its Negro sales- 
men, made a contribution to the 
'NAACP as membership for the 
Negro. This was the first and 
only contribution. In error, ap- 
parently that membership wa« is- 
suer in the name of Falitaff 
BrejvingCorp." j, 

\\ right said Griesedieck'sj let 
ter Explained that his firm Hoes 


the effect on Falstaff sales, $ 





NOT ft- . - •■ 

126 DEC 12 055 


|Page 7 Cols. 


1 & 2 



INDcXiD . 

HLLft . 

DEC 11955 




^P sUl Mr. Tolsonj^ X l 

ftjfaMt. Belmont _Z_ 



Mr.. Harbo 
Mr. ,Mohr . 
Mr. Parsons' 
Mr. Rosen 
Mr. Tamm 
Mr. Sizoo 

~ r 1 , 

Mr. Winterrowd — 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman 

Miss. Gandy 








126 DEC . 7 1355 

wi i ii 1 1 ii^ 



p-19 (11-15-55) t 


Carter Wars on WCCs 
Economic Noose on South 

(Fifth and last articles of a series) 

r*REENVILLE y Miss.,^Fov. 25.-r-&*creey is the 
** secret weapon of the*i^te^ 
oOCssisgifipi, the new Man fhat enforces thought 
control Tby economic terrorism. 

Because all important decisions are made at private 
committee meetings behind closed doors — and passed 
along to the membership by Word of mouth rather than 
public announcements— the WCC has been able to create 
a climate of fear in which its opponents have been unable 
to organize. 

As a consequence, the 
voices that speak out against 
the economic Kluxism of the 
WCC are scattered and, up 
to now, largely ineffectual. 

But the opposition is wide- 
spread and as the hate'*preach- 

ments of Judge Tom P. Brady, 
the principal ideologist of the 
WCC, continue to offend thought* 
ful Mississippians it is rising in 
strength. \ 

So far the opposition hasnty 
ffound a rallying point* But it hail 

(k?on\inued on page 8, col* ' jf/* 


y » 

Mr* Tolson ;> 
Mr. Bop. 

Mr. Harb o 
Mr. Mohr 


Mr. Parson s y?\„ 
Mr. Rose n " l ^ 
Mr. Taro m 
Mr. Sizoo, 

Mr. Winterrowd^ 

Tele. RooA ~ 

Mr. Holloman„ 
MLss Gandy 

/J-1^^^%7 4 . 

*& L 

O ili^S 




Wash. Post and * 

Times Herald 

Wash* News ( 

Wash. Star i 
N. Y. Herald 


N. Y. Mirror 

N. Y. Daily News _J 
Daily Worker ; 

The Worker ; 

New leader 

^e HQVae ;pns 


1 » > 

<^~4Q&n&tmtcd from p a& m £) * ** ' 

found its most articulate spokes- 
man in Hodding Carter, editor- 
owner of the. Delta Democrat 
Times, published here in Green- 


Carter, who has been called the 
social conscience of the New 
South, was one of the first to de- 
tect the thought control tendency 
of the WOO and to see that 
Southern life was being stifled by 
the narrow bigotry of a move- 
ment guided by the ideology con- 
cocted by Judge Brady. 

For his perspicacity, Carter 
has been damned as a liar by an 
80-to-6 vote of the* State House 
of Eepresentatives. (He retorted, 
"I herewith resolve by a vote of 
1-0 that there are 89 liars in the 
State Legislature,' beginning with 
Speaker (Walter) Sillers,")* And 
determined efforts have been 
made to cut into the circulation 
and advertising of his news- 

He shows no signs of giving 
up. So far, he says, he has been, 
more than able to counterbalance 
losses and his circulation, fluc- 
tuating SO to 100 copies one way 
or the other from week to week, 
has remained stahle at about 


His attack on the White Citi- 
xens Councils which he first pub- 
lished in an article in Look mag- 
azine last Spring has, meanwhile, 
sharpened. In his newspaper, the ; 
Delta Democrat Times, he is us- 
ing front page editorials to slam 
at the economic sanctions of the 

"We are not talking about one 
or two incidents," said one edi- 
torial. "This is a planned cam- 
paign entered upon by men whose 
behavior in this regard makes 
them blood-brothers of the 
Capone mob. 
^-^fe-cnltnts, professioawK-ritel? 

and distributors have been ap- ] 
proached. Some have already felt > 
the lash* 

"These 'protection sellers* make \ 
no bones about it. In some cases , 
they tell their targets that un- 
less they organize or join the , 
Councils, they'll get no more 
business from Council members." 

3?or a while, Carter's offensive 
was effective. It took the White 
Citizens Councils 11 months to 
organize Greenville — and even 
when it was organized the first 
three leading citizens approached 
spurned theS chairmanship — btifc 
the WCC is now in the saddle 

It has enlisted most of the mer- 
chants, lawyers, bankers and doc- 
tors, including Catholics and Jews 
who might be expected to oppose 
the movement, and it has been 
successful in putting the squeeze 
on a number of Negroes, includ- 
ing a Negro doctor whose patients 
are being warned against him. 

Yet Carter is no desegregation- 
ist. Like most Mississippians who 
deplore the White Citizens Coun- 
cils, he is dedicated to finding a 
"middleground" between the out- 
right desegregation ordered by 
the IT. S. Supreme Court on May 
17, 1954, and the present system 
of rigid segregation so the state 
can have time to adjust to the 
new situation being brought 
about by its changing economy, 



For Mississippi is changing. 
The shrinkage of the world cot> 
„ ton*' market and the acreage lim- 
J itations' of the U« S. Department 
of Agriculture already have 
doomed the old plantation econ- 
I omy in which, tradition says, the 
j gracious, cultured Southerner 
I gave a kind of cradle-to-grave 
| security to his Negroes, 
J In its place is rising a new in- 
dustrialization. But industry re- 
quires skilled labor, or a reserve 
of labor that can be trained for 
its purpose. At present, Missis- 
sippi has no such reserve, partly 
because nearly all its schools and, 
of course, particularly its Negro 
schools, give little more than the 
bare rudiments of an education. 
So^ennuustries have 'overcome 


this handicap in finding workers. 
But it is the fear of forward- 
looking Mississippians that other 
industry may be frightened away 
from the state because of the 
rising race tensions stirred up by 
the mere existence of the White 
Citizens Councils. 

The question is what can be 
done about the new Klusism. 
One thing is certain: with its 
more than 65,000 members pour- 
ing dues at a rate in excess of 
$300,000 a year, the economic 
Kian isn't going to be easily 

One suggestion that has gained 
wide support in an appeal to 
U.S. Attorney General Herbert 
Brownell to put the White Citi- 
zens Councils on the subversive 
list as a conspiracy to deprive 
[ American citizens of the right to 
- earn their livings. 
J Such action, it is argued, would 
put the WCC on a par with the 
Communists whom it opposes so 
bitterly and might cause the 
members to reconsider whether 
they want to be connected with 
a subversive organization. 

Furthermore, a subversive list- 
ing of the WCC would have pra«- 
sfcical effect in restricting thj 
( i Membership of would-be office^ 
j holders and applicants for dd- 
J tense plant jobs, when and i 1 ) 




Mississippi gets more defense 

But against this, as the realists 
point out, is the fact that Brown- 
el! is already anathema to the 
Brady-type White Citizens Coun- 
cils members because Brownell 
argued the case for segregation 
in the XL S. Supreme Court. 

A second objection raised is that 
branding the WCC subversive 
might simply drive it under- 
ground, ending the "open* activ- 
ity of its public meetings, and 
gwe the "worst" elements a 
chance to resort to violence be- 
hind the screen of total secrecy. 

Regardless of the merits of. 
these arguments, it is apparent 
that the White Citizens Councils, 
tf allowed to continue to grow 
unchecked, are bound to raise tho, 
spectre of devastating racial con- 
flict in the South. 


I ' t Already, the Justice of Missis- 

/ sippi has been tainted by the 
climate of fear and hate that has 

j developed out of WCC propa* 

f ganda* 
* In the Lexington, Miss., libel 
suit over the shooting of a Negro 
boy by Sheriff Richard Byrd, of 
Holmes County, the state's high- 
est court, by reversing the jury 
verdict, acknowledged, tacitly that 
no critic of white brutality toward 
Negroes could get a fair trial in 
a community dominated by the 
White Citizens Councils. 

And in the "wolf-whistle" kid- 
naping and murder of Emmett 
Louis Till, the 14ryear-old Chi- 
cago Negro, from his granduncle's 
home in Money, Miss., there never 
was a chance, considering the 
climate of the times, that the men 
accused of the crime would be 

The acquittal of J. W. Milam, 
36,' and his half-brother, Roy 
Bryant, 24, of the Till murder 
was accurately forecast by the 
press even before they went on 
trial in the Tallahatchie County 
Courthouse in Sumner last 



Nor was theiie any surprise 
among Mississippians when the 
grand jury in Leflore County, 
where Money is located, refused 
a couple of weeks ago to indict 
Milam and Bryant on a kidnaping 
charge that had been referred 
to it by Judge Curtis B. Swango 
after the murder trial. 

For the feeling in Greenwood, 
county seat of Leflore County, 
was running high against "out- 
side" interference, and that 
temper was fanned by the pro- 
nouncements of the White Citi- 
zens Councils through its mouth- 
pietv&jJMge Brady. 

let the general fooling through- 

out Mississippi appears to be that 
justiaewas sidetracked^TOfiTfShe! 
Sumner murder trial and by the 
£i' a yd jury in Greenwood because i 
of the climate of hate that has de- 
veloped along with the White; 
Citizens Councils. •/ 

jr! But the very people who most* 
I deeply deplore these stains that 
the WCC-type thinking has 
^stamped on Mississippi justice are 
^bound by their own moderation in 
trying to organize an effective 



< They talk about seeking federal 

(action while at the same time they 

acknowledge that this would only! 

again affront those Mississippi- 

ans who have flocked so eagerly! 

to the WCC, And they have no! 

fweapon to counter the hyperbole; 

f f of the White Citizens Councils' 

Judge Brady. 

For Brady has activated- a deep 
seated Southern fear by his con- 
stant harping on the charge tha 
desegration of the public school 1 , 
is but the first step toward racia 
intermarriage in the South. 

And intermarriage can lead: 
only to the destruction of our civ* 
ilization as Brady preaches the 

"The mark of the 'beast," he 
says, "is apparent today in the 
various types in Mexico, the' Yu- 
catan Indians, the ttondurans, the 
North Central Americans and 
Caribs. The Proto-Negro sign 
with its accompanying destruc- 
tion cannot be disputed. The same 
"contamination and retrogression 
is apparent in Puerto Rico* Gua- 
temala, Cuba and wherever in the 
Western hemisphere the infusion 
of white and Negro blood has 
taken place. 


"Whenever and wherever the 
white man has drunk the cup of 
black hemlock, whenever and 
wherever his blood has been in- 
fused with the blood of the 
Negro, the white man, his intel- 
lect and his culture have died." f 

By .dint of repetition, Brady 
has made* this statement the 
theme of the White, Citizens 
Councils and somehow managed 
to build up a belief that all who 
oppose the WCC are bent on in 
termingling of the races. 

As a consequence many sincere 
believers in improving the con- 
dition of the Negro in .Mississippi 
within the accepted mores of seg- 
regation find themselves thought- 
controlled to silence when they 
try to speak but against the 
methods of the White Citizens 

And the new economic klan 
strides forward, imposing ever 
stricter conformity on the free 
people of Mississippi 




the Yucatan SdjETS'SSS?^ Hi* in Mexic ° 
Americans, and Car iteThS jSV he North Centr al 

same contamination and retrocession 4 T puted> 1*>e 
Puerto Rico - Guatemala r.£fi ? apparent in 

Western lumO^S^SMS^S "Sf*" in the 
blood has taken place " ° f whlte and negro 


Another excerpt from the antl- 
-wg&tf* "Black Mnn^v." 

Sheriff Richard 
Byrd, right, 
fa fed well with 
a, Mississippi 
jury in a libel 
suit a r i s i n<g 
from his shoot- 
ing of a Negro 
boy. Left, Mrs* 
Hazel Branrion, 
Smith, Missis- 
sippi editor, 
whom the 
sheriff sued for 
HbeU, High 
court u:p set 
$10,000 Award 

A Mississippi jury acquitted Roy Bryant, left, and his half-brother Jf. W. Milam,. °( tne Till boyMj 
murder. Kidnaping charges were later dismissed* 

The late Emmet t Till 
r ictim of Mississippi "justice** 



0-5.9 (£6.5-55) 




ft) (Fourth article in a series) 

TACESON, Miss:, Nov. 24— The JSgtoJBizgis 
v Council s^of MssissjEpi— the new Klan that 
enforces thongKt control by economic pressures- 
claims sole credit for the passage* of two amend- 
ments to the state constitution in the first six 
months of the WCC's life. . 

The amendments provide for: (1) Eaising the mini- 
mum qualifications for voters so it will be easier for local 
election boards to disfranchise Negroes, and (2) empow- 
ering the State Legislature to abolish the public schools 
''as a last resort in order to prevent racial integration in 
these schools, 

The claim to sole credit, or dis- 
credit as the case may he, is of- 
incially put forward by Robert 
jB. (Tut) Patterson, executive 
Secretary and one id the found- 
wcs, in the first amatial report of 
the White Citizen;* Council. 

ft The claim may be exaggerated 
although it is a fact that the 
oting amendment was defeated 
In. 1052 before the "YYCC cam< 
Ihto being), but *be fact that ill, 
could be seriously advanced *- ^ 

{Continued ojs pagm 12 $ «o/< 

tat m. 

• % 




,. Mr. 
tl Mr. 




Belmont ^ 




Parson s jf 
Rose n tfl\- , 

T3WI '^' 

Mr. Sizoo 


Mr. Winter rowd_ 

Stele. Room ~ 

Mr* Holloman 
Miss Gandy 










/os. ,l</-z%4 



* w 


Wash. Post and 
Times Herald 

Wash* News 

Wash, Star 

N. Y". Herald _ 

N. Y. Mirror 

N. Y* Daily Ne5s^?7 
Daily Worker , 

The Worker ^ 

New Leader 


Dat e may p ,, tQ ^ 



• t 

*""" f£*dnft 

ontinued from V*S£$ Z} ■■** 

measure of how far the White 
Citizens, Councils have come in 
less than a year and a hall 

And this giant stride— the WCC 
has grown from a handful of 
men to 300 councils with over 
60,000 members paying more 
than $300,000 a year in dues in 
Mississippi alone—has put the 
[WCC into politics on an im- 
portant scale, no matter the 
leady protections of its leaders 
that the movement is "non- 

On the local level, the WCC al- 
ready has succeeded in electing 
several of its leaders to the State 
House of Representatives (how 
xnany, 4 precisely, it is impossible 
to check until the Legislature 
convenes). And on the local level, 
also, it works closely with sher- 
iffs, who are the county political 
bosses, in enforcing segregation. 

And, although the WCC has no 
coypyright on the Mississippi de- 
termination to preserve segrega- 
tion, it is a fact that in last sum- 
mer's bitterly-fought Democratic 
primaries (tantamount to' elec- 
tion, here) all five candidates, in- 
cluding Attorney General J. P. 
Coleman, who won the run-off 
*tnd is now Governor-elect, took 
strong pro-segregation positions. 

influence Question 

Is a Moot Point 

So the question whether the 
[WCC influenced the election is,, 
»s the lawyers say, moot, 

But there's nothing moot about 
the fact that Judge Tom P. Brady, 
(rhymes with caddy), the ideolo- 
gist and chief orator of the White 
Citizens Councils, has been 
preaching third party, not only 
in Mississippi but in surrounding 
states, ever since the WCC was 

Brady tells his audiences, as he, 
wrote in his book, "Black Mon- 
day," that white Southerners 
can't support either the Republi- 
can or Democratic Parties as 
they are presently constituted. 
<*Hs«*»wft4s an all-South bloc eithet. 


go it alone or pressure 
najor parties, (V 

Brady*s big pitch is that J nis- 

enegation is the goal of all de- 

% sgregationists and he custonuj rily 

warms up his audiences by telling 


k "The loveliest and the purest of 
God's creatures, the nearest thing 
to an angelic being that treads 
this terrestial ball is a well-bred, 
cultured, Southern white woman 
or her blue-eyed, gold-haired little 

Warns on Overtures 

For the Negro Vote 

; But he goes on to warn that 
the Republican and .Democratic 
parties are angling for the "three- 
million bloc-voting Negroes of 
the North and East and of Cali? 
fornia" and will make concessions 
to woo their support. 

"Lets get one thing unmistak- 
ably clear," Brady says. "These 
Northern Negroes are determined 
to mongrelize America. They 
want the race to 'pass.' The 
Soviet Union could not be ad- 
verse to such. In fact it would 
he for Russia quite a victory for 
Communism. . , . The Negro pro- 
poses to breed up his inferior 
intelligence and whiten his skin ( 
and 'blow out the light' in the 
white man's brain and muddy his 

Brady blames the Truman and 
Eft s e n how e r Administratiens 
•dually for contributing -to wllat 
h says is the Comniunist-ofi * 

I ' r 


I _ 

• • 

\ mted drive for Intermarriageiof 

'th| races because both Adminii^ 
triltions relaxed segregation in 
tn** armed forces. 

In these circumstances, Brady 
says, the 17 Southern states must 
federate in a regional organiza- 
tion, to be joined hy like-minded 
people in other states throughout 
the Union, to exert pressure on 
Congress. * 

"Needless to say in these state 
organizations prohibitions relat- 
in j? *° membership can be 
strictly drawn and these prohibi- 
tions need not- relate only to race 
or color," Brady proclaims* 
But the core of his pro- 3 

l Pjsed political organization is 
the Southern states, which would 
undertake to throw solid sup- 
sport to everything tended to 

J strengthen and sustain segreg/t- 

J And the White Citizens Couli- 

cils, by virtue of their numbe s, 

. wfcre an important factor when 

just such a Southern bloc, calling 

itself the Federation for Consti- 

tutional Government, was organ- 
ize d in New Orleans late in 
Oa tober. 

|?he federation has a strong 

B|decrat tinge. It is headed up 

] by* John U. Barr, the New Or- 

- leans industrialist who commands 

tremendous wealth, and its ad- 

visory committee sounds like a 

rollcall of a Dixiecrat convention. 

On the list, for example, are 

Sen* J. Strom Thurmond, of 

South Carolina, and ex-Gov^ 

Fielding Wright Of Mississippi, 

who were the Dixiecrat candt- 

, dates for President and Vice 

President, respectively, in 1948. 

Among the 'other advisers are 
Sen. James 0. Eastland of Mis-* 
sissippi, who has a rather avun- 
> cular relationship with the White 
; Councils; former Govs. Sam H. 
\ Jones of Louisiana and Coke 
Stevenson of Texas, and "Rep. F. 
. Edward Hebert (D-La.) ♦ , 
This group is admittedly a 
"State's rights" organizatidn and' 
while the chairman, Barr, denies 
that it* is actually a third party 
movement, that isn't important 
at the moment so far as the 
White Citizens Councils is con- 

What is important is that by 
formally allying with the- state's 
rights movement, the White 
Councils have served notice on 
Mississippi politicians and aspir- 
ingft officeholders that they are 
big enougK now to be reckoned 
Willi at the polls. 

This assertion of political 
power is peculiarly important in 
semi-feu&al Mississippi where 
authority stems from the big 
planters, leading bankers and in- 
dustrialists, and topflight poli- 
ticians, in that order. 

The mere fact that nothing is 
being done -on the top level to 
curb the WCtf indicates to* the 
poor whites that the organization 
has the benevolent blessing of the 
true leaders of Mississippi. 

It is this belief that has been 
blamed for the rise in violence 
throughout the state. Bullies 
and thugs, seeing their local 
community leaders sponsoring a 
militant organization to keep 
down the Negro, are finding li- 
cense in the propaganda of the 
WCC to avenge themselves on, 
Negroes for real and fancied 
slights, according to progressive 
Mississippians who have studied- 
the problem. * 

Rising Tension 

Is Unmistakable 

For while there is little evi- 
dence of a "reign of terror" as 
the National Association for the, 
Advancement of Colored People 

i charged after the murder of 
Emmett Till -last August, there 
are unmistakable signs of rising 
Atem: In . Greenville, Miss., a 
clean-cut, well-educated Negro 
bellhop reported that his family 
was keepings gpn;at home for 
the first time in his life. "We've 

goJTIoHBef ready to protee^e^?*-^ 
selves " he said. * 

Item: This reporter, who kept 
a white cab driver waiting out- 
side the home of a Negro doctor 
for an hour, was called a "nigger j 
lover" — the ultimate lower-class 
Mississippi insult — as the hackie 
drove off after collecting his fare 
and the tip. 

Item: In Jackson, Negro cab 
drivers almost ostentatiously ig- 
nore the hails of white men try- 
ing to flag them- down in Negro 
sections. White drivers have to 
be summoned by phone. 

Talk f o Reporter 
Made in Secrecy 

Item: Two white men, making 
a date to meet this reporter, re- 
fused to call at his hotel. They 
insisted on a^ street corner meet- 
ing and drove around for .an hour 
while talking over the situation. 
The explanation was that they 
would only be stirring up trouble 
for themselves by being seen 
talking to him. 

These incidents simply point 
up the climate of tension and 
fear that has followed the White 
Citizens Councils, county hy 
county and iown by town, as they 
have expanded through Missis- 

It Was Get Out 

Or Go Bankrupt 

Let JDr. Emmett J* Stringer, of 
Columbus, president of the State j 
NAACP, who is himself a victim j 
.of a credit freeze in his home* 
community, tell a story. j 

"We had a branch president," j 
he says, "a merchant who had to j 
give up. A group of white men \ 
drove up to his store and toldj 
him to get in the car. He-did and * 
they took him to his bank and 1 
there were the banker, his whole- 
saler and other people who gave 
him credit. They told him they 
would give him no more credit- 

"He had to give up, go bank- 
rupt or get out." i 

Or take the case of Dr. Clint<)ii 
, I, 




• » 

Baftle7 m Indianola, where ' tiie - 
WCC was born. In 1954, Battle 
registered to vote „— the first 
Negro -to try it in Sunflower 
County — and tried to get his fel- 
low Negroes to do -likewise. 

The consequences: Battle'* 
patients were told by their- white 
bosses that he was a dangerous 
man .and his practice has been 
shrinking so. swiftly that it is 
questionable whether he can stay 
in Mississippi. One result: Dr. 
Battle stopped trying to; get out a 
Negro vote and didn't even try 
to vote himself this year. ■ 

Then there was T. v. Johnson* 
an undertaker in Belzoni, ( who 
joined the Regional Council of 
Negro Leadership, which is fight- 
ing for desegregation, He was 
warned not to accept the chair- 
manship of the Negro Boy Scouts 
under threats that he would be 
stripped of credit and possibly 
run out of town. 

Pressure on WWfes 
Is More Subtle 

The pressure against whites 
is more subtle. The outstanding 
case, of course, was the mass 
meeting in Holmes County order- 
ing Di\ David B* Minter and A. 
E. Cox, his partner in a coopera- 
tive farm, to get out of town. 

But white clerks have been 
fired for questioning the wisdom 1 
of the WCC and the early rash 
of letters <to the editor that ap- 
peared in Mississipi newspapers 
denouncing the klannishness of 
the White Citizens Councils has 
all but disappeared. 

All of which seems to indicate 
that the White Citizens Councils 
have now achieved a position of j 
power so great that they can be 
stopped only by a major up- 
heaval in Mississippi thinking. , 
_. . 

(through iheclimaie of ; 

fear in which the WCC 

thrives, opposition voice* » 
ore rising. Subject of foj 
.morrow's fifth -and taw J 
article of this series!* j 


• • 

~***T •- -*• 

John U. Bar* Sen, J. Strom Thurmond Ex-Got. Fielding Wright 

Dtxiecrats who lead the segregation-minded Federation for Constitutional Government. 

Rep. F. Edward Heberi * Sen. Jame. (X E^tland Ex-Gov. Sam H. Jone^ r „™*n* 

Other leaders of the federation, which Aa# *fro ng connections with the White ^Citizens Councils. 

* ^f rtnA's creatures. 
The loveliest and *«$?&& t& treads this 
the nearest thing, to ^SScSJi Southern white 
trrestrialhall I is £ ^Jgfi haired little g*rl, 
woman, or her blue eyea s _ . tr 


A typical excerpt front the anti-Negro hook, "Bl ack Monday," 


0119 (11-15-55) 


• • 



(Third article of a- series) 

■n™ ™* T r By JAME S DESMOND 

B E c 0U nHk nS- N - 23 '~ T t, e id ^^ ical ^father of the White Citizens 

' „^ Judg \ Br ¥7 invariably goes on to explain to the 
audiences he addresses nightly: p ° * ne 

2^/^^Nepowa, ttoa. He ™ transported from 

[divorced from Africa and 
I saved from savagery. In 

1 spite of his basic inferiority he 
\['as forced to do that which he 

|ita>uld not do for himself. He 
yaa compelled to lay aside canni- 
balism, his parbaric, savage cus- 

aboriginal ignorance and 




a A moral standard of values 
I- was presented to him, a, standard \ 

he could never have created for* 
himself and which he does not 
now appreciate." 

' But don't get Brady (he pro- 
pronounces, it to rhyme with 
"caddy") wrong; he "loves" t\ T e- 
f£?r es ' "good" Negroes that is. 
We will give the jtfegro in good* 
conscience -all that he is justly 
entitled to a nd wh at we in good! 

(Continued on page 8 coL I) J 

Mfe. poison 
WmA- A 

Mr. KM , _ .. 

Mr. ^4f^L^l 
Mr. Harbo J 
Mr. Mohr 





^Mp. Sizo o 

Tfc% T/Sfinterroifd^ 

Stole* Room " 

Mr. Holloman 
Miss Gandjr^ 

riMcs *m 

Wash* Post and 
s - limes Herald 
(o Wash. Nero 

Wash. Star 

> / N. Y. Herald 



N* Y. Mirror 


v IN. T. Dally Nero^ 

\ jj' ' Daily Worker r 

-^ Ifce Worker . 


Neur Leader 

^ ^(IV 9 a. 1MK 


\J- >-r 

k ,*^£*tf*tfrt ued from page 3) 

conscience can afford/' he is fond 
of saying. 

And, as soon as he has said 
that, Brady follows up- with a 
little more explanation of his 
conception of the Negro's place 
in Mississippi society. 

"The purpose of this compari- 
son," he will say, "is not to em- 
barrass or humiliate anyone — but 
you can dress a chimpanzee, 
house-break him, and teach him 
to use a knife and fork, but it will 
take countless generations of evo- 
lutionary development, if ever, be- 
fore you can convince him that a 
caterpillar or a cockroach is not 
a delicacy* Likewise the social, po- 
litical, economic and religious 
-preferences of the Negro remain 
close to the caterpillar and the 



It is this' speech by Brady,, 
which he, repeats over and over, 
nearly every night in the week — 
that has stamped the label of 
kluxer, thinking on the White 
Citizens Councils of Mississippi. 

For, so far as the WCC has a 
philosophy, Brady is its philoso- 
pher; so far as the movement 
boasts a spokesman, he *is the 

He is also one of the chief rea- 
sons why thoughtful Mississip- 
pians both in and out of the 
movement, deeply fear that the 
already half -secret White Citizens 
Councils are drifting toward naked 
Idanism and the violence it im- 

For Brady continually skirts a> 
call to violence in his nightly ad- 
dress. His most solemn warning 
is that the North may try 
"through force of arms" to im- 
pose desegregation, 

"If that happens then it will 
take an army bf ' 100 mill? on men 
to compel it," he says* "We have, 
through our forefathers, died be- 
fore for our sacred principles* We 
can- if necessary die again. You 
shall not show us how a white 

a Negro! "You shall not mongrel- 
ize our children and grand- 



Brady came into the White 
Citizens Councils as a full-blown 
white supremacist already em- 
barked on- his course. before the 
WCC was born. 

Before May 17, 1954,- when the 

idates fo 

"they set up politiBHfinnuSee% 
to '/screen" candidates for public 
office on the .white supremacy 
issue, and they are now drifting 
into Dixiecrat rallies that could 
become a third party movement. 
Along with these ideas— Brady 
had many more: buying Lower 
California to set up a 49th State 
to which Negroes would be de- 
ported and starving out the 
Negroes and exporting them to- 
the North are a couple of -'ex- 
amples — Brady furnishes the' 
WGC with plenty of targets for 
their hate. 



First and foremost on his list 
is the National Association for 
the Advancement of Colored Peo- 
ple, which, Brady says, is "trying 
to stage "a revolution in the bed- 
room" so that by intermarriage 
it can "mongrelize" America and 


ea indicates 


Sen. James 0. Eastland i> 
lukewarm to the WCC* 

U. S. Supreme Court handed 
down its decision outlawing 
segregation in the public schools, 
Brady, t a vice president of the 
Mississippi Bat Association, was 
a 14th Mississippi Circuit Court 
Judge, # Iving in Brookhaven and 
traveling his circuit in, compara- 
tive obscurity* Politically, he 
was at a dead endi 

The Supreme Court ruling 
changed all that. - A few days 
after the decision. Brady made 
his first white supremacy speech 
of record before the Greenwood 
Chapter of the Sons of the, 
American Revolution, and a new 
career opened to him. 
t He quickly expanded/the speech 
mto a 101-page, paperbound book 
and by the time the White Citi- 
zens Councils began to fan out 
from Indianola, where it was 
bom, the book was on the print- 
ing presses. , 



Called "Black Monday/' which 
signifies the -day of the Supreme 
Court desegregation decision, the 
book was adopted almost im- 
mediately as the unofficial Bible 
of the WCC. It was given initial 
distribution through the Coun- 
cils and is now being plugged by 
the State Council, which rules 
the WCG, here and in surround- 
ing states. 

Many of Brady's ideas were 
taken over by the White Citizens 
Councils* They wrote into their 
constitution m'ovjsio^^ fox eco- 
nomic boycotts ^of dissenters; 

Judge Tom Brady preacj im^ white-supremacy ] 

turn it over to the Communists; , 

A close second is the Supreme 
Court. "The Supreme Court 
should be accorded all the defer- 
ence ^nd respect possible because , 
of the nature, of the office/' • 
Brady says. "It should be given . 
at least the esteem accorded j 
Pontius Pilate." t 

t "Marxist Christians and min- ! 
isters" who won't accept Brady*s j 
declaration that "God decreed 
segregation" come third, and 
Brady reserves special scorn for 

lie also inveighs against the . 
CIO and flirts timidly with anti- 
Semitism (although he pays 
tribute to the purity of Jewish 
blood) by telling audiences, "It 
is lamentable that attention 
should be called to the alarming 
increase of Jewish names in the 
ranks of Communist front or- 
ganizations." He then g*Wtt*tkr* \^ 

.^nii is not to embarrass 
The purpose of to*^^ a chimpanzee; 

asaS'K's.'— * 

>f ooz 

* The Supreme Court should be aceoraled all the de 
ference and respect possible because of the nature of 
the office. It should be given at least the esteem, ac- 
corded Pontius' Pilot. It should, however, be j y**^*-! ■■ 

creatures, yjy 

n^A**. cx 

Excerpts from Brady F « "Black 

s \o enumerate the "Rosenbergs, 
xreenglasses or Alger Hisses' 

_ Singularly enough, although the 1 
Boman Catholie Church is one of 
the most aggressive organizations 
fighting for desegregation and al- 
though the Bishop of Natchez 
has bitterly condemned the Man- 
nish aspect of the WCC, Brady 
doesn't mention Catholics. 



" In. his nightly speeches, Brady 
hammers home his points by high- 
blown rhetoric and an authorita- 
tive tone, rather than eloquence. 
In fact, unlike hate preachers 
like Father Coughlin and Gerald 
I/. K. Smith, he rarely stirs' pro- 
longed applause, although he gets 
sporadic outbursts. This is sur- 
prising in^view of the fact that 
the Brady line usually stirs up 
fanatics to wild enthusiasm. 

In a recent WCC meeting here 
in Belzoni, ■ for example, there 
were only four bursts of applause 
in an hour-long oration to an 
audience of 450. 

The meeting was typical of the 

"public",* sessions- of the WCC. 

The local chairman introduced 

Brady and the mouthpiece went 

into his speech. Afterwards he 

got thanks and it was over. There 

was neither opening prayer nor 

benediction — an extreme- rarity in 

this part of the country which 

Brady proudly acclaims as the 

"Bible belt." 

Brady is a solidly built man, 

| standing about 5 feet 9, in his 

I middle 50s, His dark hair and 

j mustache are liberally streaked 

| with gray and he is meticulously 

barbered and tailored, favoring 

I clothe* cut closer to the New 

! York style than is usual down 

1 here. 

\ "Ko&Lte&'avels around with an 

entourage of l^fozen oFVcPtlfiat 
almost inevitably includes Robert 
B. (Tut) Patterson, executive sec- 
retary, and W. J. Simmons,, ad- 
ministrator, of the state WCC, 
and usually includes Congressman 
John Bell Williams, who coined 
the phrase, "Black Monday." 
(Brady tells audiences that Wil- 
liams should he kept in Congress 
for life just for hitting on that 
happy title.) 

Just how important Brady is in 
the WCC— even though it has 
adopted many of his ideas — is dif- 
ficult to assess. Like Patterson 
and Simmons, he had no statewide 
reputation with the general pub- 
lic before he became the champion 
of white supremacy. 

Even now^he is getting a mixed 
press. Except for the Jackson 
Daily News, whose, editor Col. 
Frederick Sullens is an enthusi- 
astic white .supremacist (the 
paper has accepted a WCC 
■award), the important papers in 
Mississippi largely ignore Brady's 
speeches, although of course he 
gets a play in weeklies in the 
towns where he speaks. 

Patterson and Simmons, like- 
wise, 'are getting little- build-up 
from t the press. " * 



In the meantime, there is no 
doubt that the big planters, x-eally * 
wealthy industrialists and bank- 
ers and the topflight politicians 
who run the state are keeping * 
careful eye on the White Citizens 
Councils — but not one has. active- 
ly allied himself with the move- 

Even U. S. Sen. James O. 
Eastland, who has called for a 
white organization to light for 
segregation, has given no more 
than a kindly nod to the WCC. " 

But the WCC is beyond its 
growing pains. It is now a valu- 
able property, bringing in dues of 
$300,000 a year or more and 
reaping other income from sale 
of its paper" and the distribution 
of books and pamphlets. 
. The top hierarchy of land- 
owners, business, industry and 
politics may soon have to move 
in, if only to control the growing 
power of the White Citizens 

When that.move comes, Brady, 
Patterson and Simmons will be 
clearly expendable if the powers 
that be decide to shift the line of 
the movement. For none has 
established a loyal rank-and-file 
following to back up a fight if 
the top hierarchy gives the word 
J^-4J«*rtige the leadershi 



• • 



On the back of this covet is an optical illusion, 
Many geometric arrangements can be seen in it. The* 
Communist front organizations of this country* the] 
Marxian christians and educators and the left wins: 
' labor groups, would have us believe that thus is the! 
Constitution of the United States, an instrument to' 
which any socialistic or communistic concept can be 
found* r 

Our Constitution has been like Polaris, fixed and 
Constant, a beacon to guide us through the shoals of 
Socialism, past the rocks of Communism and into the 
harbor of Democratic liberty and freedom. Let us not 
permit our Constitution to become all tilings to all 
men. We must never confuse Polaris, our Constitution, 
with a will-o-the-wisft a drifting buoy, or Sfc t Elmo!s 
fire which will cause our Ship of State to crash on the 
rocks of destruction and sink beneath the waves of 
Communism. , 

} Seometric d„i gM mAmtt back ccv er of book, "BLck Mo nJay ,» hy wJlite , Hprenwc j, t TomBradr . 














Barb o 
Mr* Moh r 

Mir. Sizo Q^N xitJ . 
Mr. Wdiiief^S^V 

Mr. Holloma n 
l&ss Gandy_ 


Rosen I 




(Second article of a series) 


T EXINGTON> Miss., Nov. 22.— Thirty-five years ago the rampant KuKlux 
•*-' Klan staked a burning cross in f ro^cit of the house of amyf&mily marked 
for ostracism in the South. Today, the more sophisticatedrA^ 
Qp^a^jQfcMissiasippirSpon- ^ 

sors of the new economic 
Kluxism, get the same re- 
sults with a few well-placed 

'And what increases the 
t>ower, r of the White Citizens 
Councils immeasurably is 
that the great majority of 
white Mississippians, even 
though they oppose the new 
K luxism.^ fervently believe 
that segregation must be 

preserved and, therefore^ are 
in sympathy with the goals 
of the WCC if not its 

T{ie argument of the^majority 
is twofold." First, it is skid that 
carrying out integration .of the, 
schools as the U. S, Supreme 
Court ordered on May 17, 1964, 
would bankrupt the state with- 
out providing better education 
for the Negro. 

Second, the majority says that 

moving Negroes, from their ad 
mittedly inferior schools into 
white classes would drag down 1 
the already low academic rating 
of the white schools.. ; 

The poverty of Mississippi ; is i 
self-evident. Its per capita in-i 
come is the lowest in the coun- H 
try and it would talce a 75 %$ 
boost to bring it to within strilc- i 
ing distance of surrounding | 
states. And it is generally ac-s 
lcnowledged that the schools \ 

(Continued on pagelZr&m) j 

Wash. Post and 

limes Herald 

Wash. News __ 

Wash. Star 



j»N. Y. Herald 
Itr* l N. Y. Mirror 


Ar*i\ v r <^ 

ypjcA (%'U, 

-.; iDtCO- iass" 




N. Y. Daily News 3_ 

Daily Worker 

The Worker 

New Leader * ____ 


KUV y Ji SSSST - - 



Replies ■ 

= By Dr. TfcMim It. V» Mttt = 

W, L» writes: How is a sitz 
bath taken V 


Sit down in the bathtub with 

enougrlt warm, water to cover the 



Mrs. Y. -writes: My upper eye- 

/.\ lids are red and sometimes they 

crack open 'and a fluid comes 

out. Gould this mean kidney 


Ko> Redness and putttnesa art* 

Four frightened Negro boys are bullied into testifying that two white men p 

^^$0$f& I 


'ontinaed from page 3) 

would have to slow down their 
teaching: if fully integrated until 
the backward children caught up. 
These beliefs are so firmly in- 
grained in Mississippians that 
every candidate for governor in 
last summer's Democratic pri- 
maries^ which actually amount to 
election, was for segregation, in- 
cluding the winner of the runoff, 
J. P. Coleman, attorney general 
and governor-elect. 

It was in this atmosphere that 
the White Citizens Councils came 
into being, With the leaders boast- 
I ing at the outset that they would 
use economic squeezes and "man- 
to-man" talks to prevent Negroes 
from applying for admission to 
white schools and to discourage 
Negro voting. 

But grown to maturity with 
about 300 councils comprising 
more than 65,000 dues-paying 
hjnembers in Mississippi alone, and 
uncounted thousands in other 
I states, the WCC is now soft- 
f pedaling its "enforcement" activ- 

I Anything the members do — 
I whether firing a Negro from his 
I job or giving him stern warning 
I — they do as individuals, accord- 
Ting to W. J. Simmons, state ad- 
I sninistrator of the White Citizens 
I Councils. 

I Which makes pertinent the 
I story of Holmes County, of which 
I Lexington is the seat, in the last 
I year and a half while the White 
I Citizens Councils were spreading 
lover the state, particularly in 
I the Mississippi Delta counties 
I where cotton reigns. 
I Holmes has a &-to-l Negro 

■ population, but it is not truly a 
| Delta county, only one-third of 

■ its land lying in the Delta, the 
■rest merging into* the hills. But 
■the ruling classes in Holmes are 
■Delta-minded and from the out- 

■ set they have run one of the most 
■militant White Citizens Councils. 




do businlP with him. His sin 
was that he was active in the 
National Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Colored People and 
too forward about desegregation. 
A Two leaders of the White 
* Citizens Councils have been 
elected state representatives de- 
spite the fact that the WCC 
claims to be "nonpolitical." 

5 A mass meeting has been held, 
with a White Citizens Council 
leader presiding, to order two 
white men to get out of town be- 
cause they offended local customs 
by trying to alleviate the condi- 
tion of the Negroes. The white 
men are still "hanging on" but 
uncertain of their future. 
£ The Rev. Marsh M. Calla- 
" way, 60, pastor of the Presby- 
terian Church of nearby Durant, 
was fired from his pastorate by 
a 43 to 2 vote of the church's 
resident members because he at- 
tended the mass meeting ana* 
denounced it as "un-Christian 
and un-American." He will leave 
the church Sunday after a new 
pastor is appointed* 

Here are some of the «»,„ s * 
■that have happened in Holmes 
■ County during the period of the 
■White Citizens Councils' emer- 
gence and growth: 
l| Sheriff Richard F. Byrd 
1~ slugged a Negro boy and shot 
■Jim in the back . because .the 
WNegvo "hollered" at the sheriff's 
■passing car. The shooting was 
■never presented to the grand 

BO A Negro schoolteacher, shot 
|r« hy the ne'er-do-well son of a 
■prominent family, was denied 
■reemployment when her teaching 
■contract ran out — after several 
■years of apparently satisfactory 
■teaching— and wa& forced to 
■move to Chicago. Her husband 
■was fired from his job as a gas 
■station attendant. Again, the 
■case was never presented to the 
■grand jury. 

|0 At nearby Tchula, which is 
1** almost an all-Negro com- 
■mumty, a Negro plumber has 
■lost most of his customers, who 
lexplai n^ to ^ m that they had 
■frgeE told (by white men) not to 



Taking the cases in order, the 
shooting of the Negro boy, Rich- 
ard Randall, by Sheriff Byrd ac- 
tually antedated the organization 
of the White Citizens Council in 
Holmes County. But the case 
came within WCC purview when 
Byrd sued Mrs. Hazel Brannon 
Smith, publisher of the Lexington 
Advertiser and Durant News, 

^^ I? el J lies ' for libei in tne f all 
°z i™ for Panting an account 
of the incident. 

Byrd is a prominent and active 
member of the WCC, which makes 
it a matter of principle to "coop- - 
erate" with local officials. And 
m his libel suit, he had the back- 

™%n 0i $ e *?* Jfaders , of the 
WOC, although all were acting 
an the organization's term as "in- 

Nevertheless, the climate cre- 
ated by the White Citizens Coun- 
cils was clearly spelled out when 
the case reached »the Mississippi 
Supreme Court, which threw out 
a $10,000 verdict awarded Byrd 
by the trial jury. 



t The use of economic pressure 
is harder to "document. Certainly 
when scores of Negroes get word 
independently not to do business 
with a certain man or firm, the 
pressure is more than spontane- 

A Negro widow with seven 
children, crushed by an economic 
boycott of her neighbors, whose 
"white men" had told them not 
to deal with her, was unable to 
find a purchaser for her eight- 
room house and grocery store, 
for which she asked only $3,000. 
Considering that $600 a room is 
considered fair down here, the 
place was a bargain— not even 
counting the grocery store— but 
the most credit any Negro could 
get toward the purchase was 

A Negrg umkjttafor fwni that 


membership in his blMfl club 
(down here Negroes pjJJT^Tteer 
pennies ^ week to the under- 
taker to provide for burial and 
he takes care of all expenses) 
was dwindling because he was in 
the NAACP, He quit and busi- 
ness is better. 

As for the nonpolitical charac- 
ter of the WCC in Holmes 
County, just a couple of elections 
need to be noted. Wilburn Hook- 
er, planter, insurance man and 
merchant, was the first chairman 
of the Holmes County Citizens 
Council and last summer he won 
election as state representative 
as he moved from county chair- 
man to the executive committee 
of the WCC for the 3d Congres- 
sional District, which embraces 
nine counties. And in Tchula, J. P. 
Love, chairman of the White 
Citizens Council, also has won his | 
first term in the Legislature. 

To come now to the mass meet- \ 
ing that ordered two white men ' 
to get out of Holmes County, The ' 
white men in question are two 
dedicated men, Dr. David R. Min- ■ 
ter and A, E, Cox, who run the . 
Providence Cooperative Farm on 

jm *t 

William J. Simmons, & leader 
of the White Citizens Councils. 

a dirt road about eight miles off 
the highway between Tchula and 
Qreenwood, Miss; 

The farm isn't much. Only four 
families — two white and two 
Negro— live on it. But Minter and 
Cox have been a thorn in the 
white community because they 
have devoted themselves to ame- 
liorating the condition of the 
Negroes, strictly within the pat- 
terns of segregation that control 
Southern living. 

Dr. Minter, a University of 
Pennsylvania graduate, runs a 
small clinic for Negroes on the 
farm— when he isn't serving at 
the county hospital in Lexington 
— and Cox administers the farm 
and runs a small grocery store 
for the Negro field hands. 

On Sunday, Negroes and whites 
attend educational movies or lee- , 
tures at the farm— sitting in 
properly segregated sections . of 

the small hall L . 

\ Minter and Cox" "have" never ; 
been wholly acceptable to the < 



In InaiwjoU, Sunflower County, Hiasiiaippi a local Citiian* Ccuncil.haa t*a» • 
<fom*d» It if dwueated to preienring «ur v»y of life by upholding, racial *e£ri3*- 
tion on a local lerel* Other coeuunltiea hearing,©* thi* croup hare aaJcedforhel? 
in foralnjc •luilw ones. The ideal* apreadiny tbtvufhoui th* itata*. 

By Bemanlfcor*, Fre»14ent o* Indiano!*. Eink 

I pramaje nil 'of you trir* told Ui«n ycu. ware invlttcfhera the' nature) of thia 
•••ting* Jfa appreciate your prqeense and aaaurayou that w ara-£lad to' give of 
«wr tine hoping, feeling that scnathinc can be acccapliahed, Vfe vbuW UJced to hat* 
presented thiauntttr in person but the Job ia too great for our Indlaiwla gr^up: 
we have gone into a nuabor of other eountiee-and each %im thai* ware present ei*.t- 
jtens' frca other adjoining countiea and thay invited u« to cco# end, seat withvthVu 
rfa rtalixa that ourgrcup alona cannot cbvar tba<atate and^thafc ' 
thia-wire recorded presentation* Ve ara fw«tf_tb*Jis2* 
floirtr Ccunty, whera the probjj 
It Is your mttM^ T" — - — J* *.^^**** ia»a. 

Letters marked * confidential" stir the fight afeamst desegregation 

Holmes County white commu- 
nity, but feeling against th#n 
didn't roll into high until after 
the Emmett Till murder trial in 
Sumner, Miss., last September. 
In Holmes County, where the 
WCC dominates all social and 
economic . fife, sympathy was 
high for J. W. Milam, *36, and 
Roy Bryant, 24, while they were 
on trial for killing young-Till, a 
Chicago Negro. 

With the acquittal of the pair 
and the subsequent national pub- 
licity, local resentment focused 
on Minter and Cox* . 

As a consequence, four Negro 
teen-agers, all field hands, were 
hauled in by Sheriff Byrd ? who 
has something of a reputation as 
a bully. In the presence of Byrd, 
County Attorney Barrett and top 
members of the WCC, the Ne- 
groes were placed before a~ 
microphone. The mike was for 
a tape recording. 



For the next hour, the boys 
were cross-examined, the purpose 
of the questioning being to elicit 
Statements that Minter and Cox 
permitted mixed and white bath- 
ing in a pond on their farm and 
that they mingled the races at 
the Sunday afternoon meetings. 
Taking part in the questioning— 
as he later inadvertently admit- 
ted—was Ed White, church elder, 
prominent business man and a 
guiding light of the WCC, 

The four Negro boys, cowed by 
the gun-toting sheriff, finally 
gave the desired answers. 

Promptly there was a meeting 
of* t^ y ta i aa » members of the White 

"Citizens Council and a mass, 
meeting at Tchula was summoned 
on Sept. 26. State Kep.-elect 
looker said the mass meeting 
wasn't sponsored by the WCC, 
but just happened "spontane- 

Whatever its genesis, it was 
WCC leader of the Tchula Coun- 
cil, State Rep. Love, who pre- 
sided. And at this meeting the 
tape recording of the "testimony" 
of the four field hands was 

The, mass meeting, after all but 
ignoring statements by Minter 
and Cox, adopted a resolution: by 
standing vote advising the doctor 
and his associate that they were 
"undesirables" and that Holmes 
nnnTitv.wm ild be better off with- 
out them. 

Hooker, as executive committee 
member of the WCG for the Con- 
gressional District, denied that 
the WCC had any part* in the 
meeting, v even though its mem- 
bers turned out in strong force. 

Hooker, however, tipped the 
applecart when asked How come 
his fellow state representative- 
elect, Love, happened to preside 
at the meeting. , , t . 13 

"How," he asked, "could you 
have a meeting in this county 
without one of our members, in 
the chair?" 

(Tomorrow, meet Judge 
Tom P. Brady, white su- 
premacist who says that 
"enslavement conferred 
upon the Negro is "Hie 
greatest benefit one mem 
ever conferred i&WLJtP' 


0-19 (11-15-95) 


New Klan Rides in South; 


,. Mr. Tolson bfy \ 
£/Mr. BM®taaou£^~ 
Mr. KfaToIs ^-^r j 
Mr. Belmon t JT/^ft 

Mr. Harbo j 

1/ Mr. Mohr 

(7n a revealing series of- five articles, veteran 
NEWS reporter James Desmond paints a vivid picture 
of the frightening power built up in Mississippi by 
the anti-desegregation White Citizens Councils and 
fanning through the Southland. Desmond, who cov- 
e*W the Till murder trial in Mississippi, made an in- 
tensive tour of the Svutk, criss-crossing the rich Delta 
region where Negroes outnumber whites 3 and 4 to 1 $ 
attending meetings of the WCC and talking to vic- 
tims of the new terror) • 

JACKSON, Miss,, Nov- 21.— A new Ku KIuxKlan 
° is exploding across the South and with the mod- 
ern weapon of economic terrorism is carrying on 
the fight for "everlasting" segregation of the white 
and Negro races that the old Klan waged with 
hooded night riders and flaming crosses a genera-* 
tion ago x — 

There have been no lynch- 
ings and no bedsheeted night 
descents on the homes of 
noncomformists. But in the 
scant year and a half of its 
life, the new Kian has 
cerated a climate of fear 
that has s traitjacketed the 
SoUth'i White community in 

a kind of thought control 
enforced by financial sanc- 
tions, and has undone most 
of the improvements in race 
relations made over the last 
30 years. 

It also, in the opinion of for- 
ward-looking Southerners, has 
created an explosive situation in 
vrhich a sinsrle incident could 

Robert B. Patterton 
Heads White Cittxent Council 

spark an interracial conflict 
frightful- beyond all American 

For today racial tensions in 
South are the tightest they have 



(Continued on Pag* 12, Col. t) \ 





"*• Parson s Jf] [ j 

Mr. Rose n V?* 4 

Mr. 25amm 

Mr<. Sizoo 

Mr* Winterrowd^ 

Tele, Room ~ 

Mr. Holloman 
Miss Gandjr^ 



Wash. Post and 
ELmes Herald 

Wash* News 

Wash. Star 

H. Y. Herald ^ 

N» Y. Mirror 

N. Y. Daily News A 
Daily Worker ■ 

The Worker ■ 

New Leader 1 


Date NOV 2 2 

la&s ; 




t j'j 


f (Continued from pat* 3) 

been since the old Klan went 
rampaging across the land with 
its lashes and tar-and-f eathers 35 
years ago. 

Increasing violence is reported 
in many sections, although offi- 
cial statistics are sadly deficient. 
Suspicion and fear between the 
races is reaching new heights. And 
white opponents of the new move- 
ment are being silenced lay im- 
plicit threat and overt use of 
economic sanctions. • 



Yet the leaders of the new 
Klan are not thugs or hoodlums, 

> the dominant organization In 
new Kluxism. 

Thoughtful Mississippians, who 
have studied the White Citizens 
Councils closely, attribute the 
dramatic growth of the organiza- 
tion to two things; (1) Develop- 
ment of the technique of using 
economic sanctions against dis- 
senters, white and Negro, and 
(2) a bankroll put up by undis- 
closed groups. , 


Although the smoothness of 
the organizing drive indicates a 
substantial bankroll, it is appar- 
ent that in the early campaign 
at least, the economic sanctions 

nor poor whites hating the Negro * . , » . ^ „,.-"" 

because of bitter competition for | *^j?Z^?Z& 
what as at best a poor living. On I in the hands of local councils 

the contrary, the new organiza- 
tion is headed up, in most cases, 
by the men who are leaders of 
their communities, in business, in 
society and in the churches. 

I The new Klan has twice as 
many names as there are states 
below* the Mason-Dixon Line, but 
it is best epitomized here in 
" Mississippi where it was born a 
year ago last July— just two 
months after the U. S. Supreme 
Court handed down its famous 
decision of May 17, 1954, outlaw- 
ing segregation in the public 

That decision was taken as a 

direct insult by most white 

Southerners. They saw in it 

another attempt by the North to 

i use the federal government to 

; change what is called "the South- 

i ern way of life" without giving 

i the people concerned a chance to 

yote on it. 

And in the general outpouring 
of protest, 14 men met in In- 
dianola, in cotton-rich Sunflower 

uiuuvin, in, culwu-julcii oumiuwcx ivtat cvmmumwes. xnere IS nc 

[County in the Mississippi Delia*- i*add§nce that they have succeeded, 

n*\ Titlxr "1 1 "1 OK/t ovi/1 wiif +Ao , of.VnM» """L. . . -. - _. 

on July 11, 1954, and jput together 
[ the first White Citizens Council 
of Mississippi, 


65,000 MEMBERS 

From that first secret meeting 

I of 14 men in Indianola, the White 

Citizen* Councils have mush- 

, roomed in less than 18 months 

I to nearly 300 councils and V 65,000 

dues-paying members (at $5 a 

head) in Mississippi alone, and 

. uncounted allied councils, with 

.identical constitutions in Texas, 

Arkansas, Louisiana, South 

Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and 


In addition, the White Citizens 
Council of Mississippi formally 
i, allied itself; with other white 
supremacy groups throughout 
the South in the Federation for 
k Constitutional Government, which 
Iwas launched last Oct. 25 in New 
| Orleans, with John U*' Barr, in- 
dustrialist, as chairman. 
# Thfcrmafea* the WCC, a rela- 
Mvely late arrival on the scene, 

that could be used locally with 
out fear of legal interference. 

It is a weapon that works. Ne- 
groes have been fired from their 
jobs, lacked off their tenant 
farms, refused credit and bad- 
gered by public utilities for dis- 
senting from the ruling white 
class in communities where the 
the WGC is strong, 
- Nor have white men been im- 
mune. At least two white men 
have been ordered to get out of 
town in one WCC community, and 
Jews and Gatholics, a minority 
everywhere in the South,* have 
felt constrained by the threats 
of economic pressure to join up , 
with the WCC to avoid isolation. ! 

Although the Catholic Ghurch * 
and top Jewish leaders liave - 
strongly denounced the WCC and ! 
all it stands for, the Southern ! 
Jews and Catholics rationalize? 
membership in the new Kluxism | 
by saying that they want to try ' 
to control the extremists in their 
local communities. There is no 

The hooded set : had a brief resurgence five year 
yielded to subtler White Supremacy 


All this was but a logical de- 
velopment of the White Citizens 
Councils movement. From that 
first meeting in Indianola, 
through the subsequent organiza- 
tion drive, and right down to the 
present day, no one in the WCC 
denies that economic pressure is 
being used against dissenters. 

Today, however, it is the prac- 
tice of leaders to say that it is 
not the^ organization that applies 
economic sanctions, but members 
acting as individuals. 

The fact remains that the orig- 
inal WCC constitution and the 
literature circulated in the early 
organizing drive — literature that 
went^ out stamped confidential 
and is now virtually impossible 
to get—started from the premise 
that the Negro is inferior and 
that the way to keep him "in his 
place" is to squeeze him economi- 
cally* and put fear i 


ago, but has : 
groups. h 


flftueflzg ffl dissenting, or even 
merely unpopular, white men was 
inevitable, given the circum- 


The secret literature of the 
first two months of the WCC 
clearly spelled out the Kluxist 
nature of the organization. Her- 
man Moore, president of the 
, Indianalo Bank, one of the 
founders, <in a speech mimeo- 
graphed (and now unavailable) 
for use in proselytizing, bluntly 
. stated: 

"There has been no publicity 
and we have suggested to each 
group we have met with that 
they keep it out of the papers 
and off the air. The news has 
trickled out, just as we expected 
and hoped it would* The Negro 
(the mimeo used a lower case N) 
knows that we are organizing 
but he does not know what we 
plan to do. The best thing is . . ♦ 
to keep* him guessing and con- 
tinue our efforts." * 

The sample constitution circu- 
lated by the founders throughout 
the Delta established the princi- 
pal of economic retaliation against 
dissenters by providing for ap- 
pointment of legal advisory com- 
mittees in every local council to 
"provide legal council (sic) for 
all members (and) to recommend 
application of economic pressure 
to trouble-makers." 

And for any who couldn't rec- 
ognize trouble makers within the 
meaning of the legal .advisory 
committees, Sunflower County 
Supervisor Fred Jones, a founder, 
made it clear in a letter circula- 
ted under the official imprimatur 
of the WCC. 

"We can accomplish our pur- 
poses largely with economic pres- 
sure in dealing with members*of 
the Negro race who are not co- 
operating, and with members of 
the white race who fail to co- 
operate we can apply social and 
political pressure," Jones wrote. 

However, it remained for Rob- 
ert B. (Tut) Patterson, 32-year- 
old planter and onetime college 
&uri&aUL^star, the chief founder 
and executive secretary of the 

Mississippi White Citizens Coun- 
cils, to give the new organization 
an ideological push in the direc- 
tion of old-style Klan thinking. 
In a letter secretly sent out on 
Aug. 31, 1954, Patterson advised 
every new White Citizens Coun- 
cil to designate a member to sub- 
scribe to 35 publications put out 
by; professional bigots and white 
supremacists "in order that you 
may have the information" that 
they publish. 



"Some of these groups are 
anti-Semitic," Patterson wrote. 
-"However, all of the religious 
groups including all Protestants, 
Catholic and Jewish have been 
pushing the anti-segregation 
issue and it is time for all of us 
to speak out for separation of 
black and white races; regardless 
of our race or creed." 

The accompanying list sug- 
gested as required reading such 
publications as "The Cross and 
the Flag," put out by the veteran 
bigot, Gerald L. K. Smith; "The 
White Sentinel," originating in 
St. Louis, Mo.; a rash of Cali- 
fornia publications dedicated to 
white supremacy, s and the out- 
put of such groups as the 
Christian Nationalist Crusade, of 
Los Angeles ; the National Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of 
White People, of Washington, 
D. C, and the National Associa- 
tion for the Advancement and 
Protection of the Majority of 
White People, Inc., of Griffin, Ga. 
The secret phase of the White 
Citizens Councils organizing drive 
lasted just two days short of two 
months— from July 11 to Sept. 9, 
195£, when the Associated Press* 
carried a story out of Jackson 
disclosing that state legislators 
t were boasting of the new group. 



- ^he legislators talked tough. 
One, who apparently* refused to 
be quoted by name, called for "a 
few killings" to teach the Negro 
to stay out of white schools. 
Others were more moderate, ar- 
guing that the White Citizens 
Councils would prevent blood- 
shed. It was apparent from the 

comment that violence-— e*fegrits 
prevention or execution — was!!t 
the minds of all. 

As State Rep. Dave Womack, 
from Humphreys County in the; 
cotton Delta, put it: 

"Yes, sir, we have one of them 
(a WCC),, the strongest in the 
state. We have about &00 mem- 
bers and they mean business." t 

The legislative boasting 1 
shocked a good many people in> 
Mississippi and * apparently, the^ 
White Citizens', Councils them-! 
selves. For four days later, Mrs* 1 
Wilma B. Sledge, state represen-f 
tative fr-om Sunflower County- ( 
where the WCC was born # tooki 
the floor of the Legislature for* 
a speech disavowing the violent 

"They (the WCC) do not and! 
will not advocate violence in anyi 
form," Mrs. Sledge declared. 


Within a month, a state organ- ; 
ization was set up with head-j 
quarters in the Walthall Hotel in i 
Jackson and W. J. Simmons, a| 
fruit broker and sometime Brit- 
ish army officer, was installed as ; 
"administrator*" as a sort of 
counterweight to Patterson, the 
ebullient executive secretary: 

The money now began to roll 
in. At first the state organiza-' 
tion got $1 of the $5 each mem- 1 
ber paid to his local council in 
dues. But this was soon boosted ( 
to $2 and the membership rolls, \ 
previously restricted to "white i 
male citizens" were thrown open; 
to women, presumably because! 
they were needed as "enforcers" j 
in employing social sanctions. j 

Last month the state council i 
began publishing its own monthly j 
newspaper at $2 per annum, with '• 
all jnembers being urged to sign | 
up. The circulation is still un-f 

But the specter of thought: 
control that the White Citizens j 
Councils brought to Mississippi; 
has become a monstrous cloudj 
blotting out nearly all dissent. ' 

(Tomorrows Thought control 
through economic sanctions and 
social ostracism, more insidious 
than hooded night T i-idgr« y d 
flaming crosses.) -- 


& * Phoenix. Ariz., church. 

tor all your torn v«J> ** on. word Of it. 





Mr. Tolson 

3on *^v^ 

yO^/Mr. Boardma FZ>^ 

Mr. Belmont rT^ , ^ 



Mr. Harbq 
Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Sizoo 




Mr. Winterrowd. 

Stele* Room ~ 

Mr. Holloman„ 
iass fi 



Called the 

White Citizens Council 

it's really a new Kian, * 

says NEWS reporter 

James Desmond, 

just Lack from Mississippi, 

where this pro-segregation 

movement first erupted. 

Members wear' no bedsheets- 
but negroes are suddenly* fired 
from jobs, kicked off farms, 
felled by bullets. These Kluxers 
in everything but name,* don't gang up 
at fiery cross conclaves — but whites 
who oppose- them feel the sharp edge of 
ecomonic boycott cunningly applied. 

Prepare to be startled by this, 
first-hand story of the once half-- 
secret WGC, now feeling its oat* 
•t*ii& throwing its weight around 
in a re-birth of a national disgrace. > 
For the, first of five 
cye-opening installments # # # see f 0mOiTOW*$ 

- — . DATLXa NEWS- 

. :6 NOV 29 355 

7 ST 

mw ypxk'»'-n«tuu.t)iw*nu>tt 



"Wash* Post and 
Mmes Herald 

Wash. News 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald _ 

N. T. Mirror 

N.. Y. Daily Nero 
Daily Worker 
The Worker _ 
New Leader 

Dat e MOV ft 1 135% 

0-19 (7-8-55) 



■7 1 

Studeirts Oppose 
Canceling Talk^ ^i 

DIVERSITY, Miss., Nov.!* 
<#).~The Student Senate at the' 
University of Mississippi has! 
asked school officials not to can- 
cel an invitation given to the 
Rev. Alvin Kershaw, pro-inte- 
gration minister. 

The Oxford, Ohio, minister is! 
scheduled to speak at Religious.' 
Emphasis Week at the Univer- 
sity February 20-22. 

"The invitation extended to 
the Rev. Mr. Kershaw was to 
conduct seminarson religion and! 
literature as an expert in the! 

2:i? f S e3i s2 on -and modem; 
aiarna* and not to discuss segre-l 
gation or integration of the 
-races/' the Student Senate said 
Tuesday. "We are not indorsing 
the Rev. Mr. Kershaw's views or 
* the views of ahy organization;" 
Mr. Kershaw, an expert on 
jazz, won $32,000 on the Column 
wa Broadcasting System's tele-! 
vision quiz program, "The $64,000 
Question." He indicated her* 
might give part of the money; 
to the National Association for 4 
the Advancement of Colored 
People to fight segregation* 

Members of the State Legisla 
ture and the Citizens Council 
objected and asked that the Rev. 
Mr. Kersh aw's invit ation be re- 
voked. ■» '» 

r n 

\A ; 

Mr. Tolsort 

Mr. Boardman 
Mr. Nichols 

Mr. Belmont 6&?}~* 

Mr. Harbo — 

Mr. Mbhr 

Mr. Parsons „ 

Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoo 


Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman _ 
Miss Gandy 




I2SN0V 221:955 

/ 6 




WashrPost and 

Tirrieg Herald 

Wash. News 

Wash. Star /9~A% 
N. Y. Herald 


N. Y. Mirror 

Daily Worker 

The Worker 

New Leader 



0-19 (6-21-55) 



' ^^IpRSITY, Miss., tfov. 12 

^?fe^ lversit y of Missis- 
sippi student newspaper yester- 
day blasted the Citizens Coun- 
ciis and a state representative 
for an attempt to screen speak- 
ers invited to the university, . 
In an editorial, the Mississip, 
Plan oojected to a request by 

Morrow of Rankin County for 
the ^university to revoke its £ 
vitation to the Rev, Alvin Ker- 
shaw of Oxford, Ohio, to speak 

Basis for the objection was 
the Rev, Mr. Kershaw's state- 
meats on the Columbia Broad- 
casting System's television ouiz 
show -The $64,000 q5££S? 
that he planned to use some of 
S2I S t0 , hel P the Nation- 
menf W? 1 f 2 r ^ he Advance- 
ment of Colored People fisht 
segregation. g 

, Morrow and the Citizens 

puke of the minister. 

■Dr. W, Alton Bryant, univer 
fty provost, said the univlr 

ment in the situation." He de- 

±ne Missisipppian editnriaT 
accused the Cecils and Mor 
row of "negleeW to |?a S p the 
meaning of a university 

students attend a university 
o increase their knowing* 
S2ST in /° rm ation throufh' 
freedom of speech and inquire 
and formulate their own oph? 
ions. r 

"How is this possible when / 
llh?» are CUddled 3ike ch3 " 

The ; editorial also called ut> 
-m university officials to "real- 
ize that students are intelligent 
riot necessarily radical, and 
^anahle of making their own 

|S ons and i0Tming opin " 

T''1 Kidnaping Case 

^J^^ty?**. El ™ett^ Till 

Mr. Tolson 

Mr. Boardman 
Mr.. Nichols _ 
Mr. Belmont _ 

Mr. Harbo 

Mr, Mohr. 


Mr. Parsons ^, 
Rosen i£_ 


Mr. Sizoo 

Mr. Winterrowd _ 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman 

Miss Gandy , 

Wash. Post and . 

Times Herald 

Wash. News- 

Wash. Star _, 

N. Y. Herald 


N. Y. Mirror 

Daily Worker 

The Worker 

New Leader 



Council Seeks ! 
125 Members 

| Special to State Times 
I FLORENCE, Miss. - A new Cit- 
izens Council In southwest Rankin 
County is trying to boost its mem- 
bership from 50 to 125. 
f Secretary Henry^Shepherd of the 
month-old Council for the county's 
Beat 1 said -those who enroll in 
•the pro-segregation organization 
^at a meeting here Monday night 
[Will be accepted as charter mem- 

J The meeting will begin at 7 p.mJ 
j Speaker will be Jimmy^-WalkerJ 
Jackson attorney who unsuccess-: 
fully sought the office of central 
district publie^service commission 
\'m this summers Democratic pri- 
maries./ ' \ 

JV*, raSimmons o$ Jackson, state 
Cnizens* Council secretary, helrifed 
organize the ^group here. Sujt 
Ban T^JKeel of Florence School is 

(\r t 

u r ■' i . 

Mr* Tolson .. 

Mr. Boardman 


Mr. Nichols .^| 

Mr. Belmonti&d 

w { 

Mr, Harlx^ J^* 


Mr. Mohr \/ffi< 


Mr. Parsonj^L- 

Mv. TJ.nsAtJ^jT ., -,' 

Mr, Tamm., 

Mr. Staoo 

Mr. 1 ' ntexrowtL 

TVIa. T?oom 

Mr, Holl'iman 

Miss Gandy. 


11/13/55 / 

[Page 13 A Col: 2 

* QQEcV'aft 






N0V1 5 1955 





10X NOV 29 195H 



Mayor Marion B. Simpson of 
Canton, said today Falstaff repre- 
sentatives approached him after 
spreading news of the brewery's 
contribution to thefllAACP stirred 
the wrath of Canton merchants. 

A member of the pro-segregation 
Citizens Council, Simpson re- 

"After word got around about 
the donation, to the National Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of 
Colored People, some Falstaff peo- 
ple came around to see me to learn 
how the report originated, * 

u l showed them the copy of 'The 
\ White Sentinel,' the St. Louis pub- 
lication with a picture of the fal- 
staff vice-president handing over 
the check." 

Meantime, W. T. Hackett Jr., 
njpnager of the Canton Chamber 
of Coirimerce, said grocers "were 
getting Fallstaff out of their 

The Sentinel, published by thej 
National 'Citzens> Protective Asso-j 
elation, contained the story of the^ 
[Falstaff donation to the NAACP inj 
jthe % October issue. 
I In St. Louis, s Karl Voilmar, vice-; 
president nf th*e brewery, said fae< 
had heard "there was some irri-s 
Ration" in Mississippi over the con* 

I Voilmar said the company made 
the donation of $500 to the NAACP 
"but it was years ago. We've had 
nothing to do with them since the 
Supreme Court decision against' 

j Ileita merchants were reported 
;by |W. H. Galaspy, of Greenwocra, 
• board member of the state retail 
j grocers association, to be angered 
over the Falstaff contribution* 


f J?- NkhohZZ * 
5'-H 8rl)<> J j 

«r. fiosen 

•' Mr - Tama, 
J Mr. Siaoo ' 



NOV 30 955 


Page 12.Gq\*.'2] / 




NOV 18 1955 


ftaafcin Comity 
Group Forms 
White Council 

Special ioiState' Times I 

. ^RANDON, Miss. -A Citizens' 

Council has been organized fori 

^atl of Baakm County vWth Dan,' 

S3J. and *-* »M5 

The area from which the new or.; 
omabtn gets its ■ rj$&"&:. 

ar* sr- * ^ 

Mr. T^n, J 

Mr. Boai iman I/p / 

Mr, KleMs__Jf 
Mr. BohnoatuJk^SV 1 *^ 

"Mr. Harbo * 

Mr. Holrr ^Jr\ 

Mr. Rosva* 
Mr. tsanm. 
Mr, Sisao_ t 

Mr. WirJ:^roY/d_ 
TcIg. Boom , 

Mr, Holloman 

Mns Gundy 







p a^e 6A Col. ? 

*/ S 8 NOV 301955 



128 NOV 29 355 



XcW 01?/, 






"orum Pan 

'Slips In 9 As 
I Member 


- State Times Staff Writer 
Questions from the audience flew-l 

thick nd fast at the fifth annual 
National Affairs Forum at Central 
high school auditorium Thursday. 

- The forum was sponsored by the 
Mississippi Economic Council, with 
Fred B. Smith, of Ripley, MEC 
vice-president', acting- as the mod- 

State Congressmen on the panel 
included Sen, John C. Stennis and 
representatives John Bell Williams, 
Arthur Winstead, W. M. Colmer 
and Jamie L. Whitten. 

Governor-elect J. P. Coleman, 
former governor Herman Tal- 
mawge of Georgia and Congress- 
man William H. Avery, of Kansas, 
rounded out the panel, which with- 
stood a barrage of questions fori, 
over an hour* 

Congressman Avery, in town as 
a member of a House veterans af-* 
fairs sub-committee making an an- 
nual inspection tour of the Veterans 
Administration hospital here* was 
a "surprise entry." 

He went to the forum as a spec- 
tator, was introduced to the au- 
dience by Smith and accepted 
Smith's spontaneous invitation to 
join the panel as its only Repub- 

" Here are some of the questions 

asked by members of the audience, 

k together with a condensation of jthe 

nfply from the panelist to whjtoi 

e query was directed, either % 



ji/ii/55 ; A 

t|e questioner or -by the modeja 
tor: I 

Qi— What are chances of main- 

taining segregation in the schools 

of the South? 

;nfent of political parties, with 
"♦hose who think as the CIO £]nd 
ADA and left-wing press" in <me 
party and "those who adhere to 
the Jeifersonian principles'* in an- 
other. He conceded, however, that 
he sees little possibility of such a 

He called ^for a "bold, militant 
front" for Southern delegates to 
'the next Democratic presidential 

%££% it depends ^on»— 
groes, in hk opinion, will.not push^g tne Southern way of me. 

efforts toward racial integration, in 
the schools. ' . 

He pointed out that Georgia lias 
enacted legislation , whereby any 
school in Which the races are 
mixed automatically have 
cut off. 

I£ forced 'to take such steps, said 
Talmadge, Georgia is prepared un- 
de~ state law to abolish its public 
school system and appropriate 
■state school funds to the individual 
child, who may the* attend the 
school of his choice. 
"No court can get around that," 

Q^—Do you agree that the fed- 
eral highway program proposed 
by Gen. Lucius Clay Is essential 
to national security? 

Stennis said "he feels the 

wFth. such unity, he* added, the 
South will lnot need to worry about 
rulings "by a political court," 

Q— Why do we continue -to pour 
so much money into our foreign- 
'funds- aid Programs? f 

Congressman Williams said he 
has been asking the same ques- 
tion for ten years. He said he voted 
for the first Marshall Plan in 1948 
and hopes that is "one sin I can 
make up for " 

Senator Stennis defended our con* 
tinuing support of large-scale for- 
eign aid programs, especially as it 
pertains to its military aspect, par- 
ticularly in Turkey, Greece and 

"I don't believe we ever spent 
a better military dollar" than we 
did in military aid to these three 
nations, said the senator, who 
praised their "grit, will-power and 
personal courage" in standing up 


Clay plan does not, give rural areas 

proper consideration and is more persomu courage m , 

of a "city-to-city" plan He said he * Q the Russian threat. 

thinks there is an owempna- ,- t erme d the recent Germjuuifc 

sis" on the military angle jn thffj^£ n fo „ casfc ife lot with the We§t . 

Clay plan and that it is similar in n 

large degree to Germany's . pre-. 

World War II highway system 

geared to military needs. 

Q.— What hope is there for con- 
servatives to gain a voice in the 
federal government if we con- 
tinue to divide our strength be- 
the two major parties? 
"Not much," replied Congress- 

ni gn^Co lmer. who suggestech^er- 

hapsthereii should be some realign- 

Mr. Tolson 

Mr. Boardman , 

Mr, Nichols; 

Mr. Belmont. 

Mr. Harbo 

Mr. Mohr- 

Mr. Parsons 

Mr. £osen„ 

Mr. Tf>mm 

Mr. SVu. 

Mr. W rj nterrowd« 

Tele. Eoom ( 

Mr, Hollomaa 

Miss Cand y 


towers" a major step toward] ^ 
peace and said that if Gei-f <\ 

sticks by this decision the ^< 

Marshall Flan, "despite a lot or ^ 
money wasted, will have been a 
sound investment," 

Congressman Colmer said he 
supported the foreign aid program 
in its early stages but feels now 
that we have gone far enough in 
giving financial support to coun- 
tries, some of which are "now bet* 
ter off than we are" financially, 
because of our large national debt 

Congressman Whitten said Con- 
gress recently added $3 billion to 
ou& foreign aid program despite 
the] fact that those responsible ;{or 
its} administration have indicated 




! : X 

ta Congress that they don't know^ / ^ t 

ml,. <y ■ .- % 



N0V1 81955 

FBI - new 0RLFaMc 



hdw'W spend some $8 bilKorrth 
"carry-over" funds. 

He said manufacturers of cotton 
gin equipment and tractors are 
selling their products to countries 
getting our foreign aid and thus in 
effect are "moving our cotton acre- 
age overseas/* 

Q;— Do you think a majority 
of Congressmen feel the U.S. 
f Supreme Court has wrongfully 
> taken powers from the states by 
some of its recent decisions? 
Practically all Southern Con- 
gressmen feel this way, replied 
Congressman Colmer, who added 
that there "may be a few Con- 
gressmen from other sections of 
the country" who would be will- 
ing to go along with these decisons. 
Q.— Do you think the Citizens 
Councils have the right approach 
to the segregation issue? 
Talmadge termed -it "highly im- 
portant*' that all Southern states! 
organize groups under "responsi- 
ble leaders" for thi& purpose andj 
jsaid he has been "favorably im- 
'pressed" by the type of men .who 
head Citizens Council groups in 

Senator Stennis said that such 
rigntT"in* his opinion, a l r eady is 
vested in the states-under the tenth 
amendment but that any stronger 
spelling out of these rights is 
"doomed" until there is a reversal 
in present trends of political think- 
ing by the two major parties. 

He said the battle to maintain 
segregation must be fought on the 
local llevel and said Southern lead- 
ers on that level shouldl tell Ne- 
groes that they have no intention 
of mixing races in public schools. 

Q.— What are the chances of 
organizing one third of the UiS. 
Senators to, block nomination of 
any more radical federal court 
and .Supreme Court justices? 

Senator Stennis said there, is a 
"strong movement" along this very, 
line which has so far not been 
given any publicity. He said he 
could not elaborate on this move- 
ment at this time. 

Q.—What effect if any has the 
United Nations charter had on 
recent U.S. Supreme Court decis- 

Senator Stennis said such effects 
couldl be reflected in many indirect 
ways but that "extra/liberal inter- 

i Q.— How can we better subsi- ! pre'tations of the United Nations 
dize the farmer? | charter' 1 have, in his opinion, been 

Congressman Avery said he sees <, repudiated by the American peo- 
little prospect of an increase in pie* * % 

exports of Ameican farm products 4lmaage recalled a recLt U.S. 

an increase. iQi .jl * — L ._„.„_„*! — iL s ._ t„ 

in acreage .allotments. 

^ d .i!??-? r ?S??^„°A m ^^^ Supreme Court minority opjnion by 

\rk, iiifif't/iaf <ittl-*rtl/-li*irf * Av nunc! 

Congressman Williams sau$ he 
see% "no immediate solution $ the 
farffo problem" until this country 
"refeaptures our world markets and 
stops using American tax money 
to subsidize competitors all over 
tjie world;" 

Q.—why is there no Citizens 
Council in Georgia? 

Talmadge says Georgia has re- 
'cently organized a States Rights 
Council. In an interview earlier in 
the day, the former Georgia gov- 
ernor said the purpose of this coun- 
cil is "to fight for the preserva- 
tion of constitutional government," 
that it is non-political and non-fac- 
tional and that it is not a "secret" 

Q.— Do you think Adlai Steven- 
son will be the Democratic nom- 
ine for president and what 
chance has he to win the presi- 

"Your guess is as good as mine," 
answered Talmadge, who added 
that Stevenson will be elected, in 
his opinion, if he is nominated and 
if President Eisenhower is not a 
candidate for re-election. 

Q.— What are chances of pass- 
ing a constitutional amendment 
vesting states with the right jo 
cii ntrol their own marriage lawjk 
voting procedures and school 

f three justices upholding* ex-presi- 
dent Truman's attempt to* seize the 
;steel industry in order to carry 
out the terms of treaties made by 
the United States. 

"Had that been the majority) 
opinion," he said, "we would have; 
had a dictatorship. \ 

The threat, .he said, points up! 
the importance of passing the! 
Bricker amendment or some simi- 
lar measure limiting this country's 
^treaty-making powers. 

Q.— Would Kansas be willing 
to absorb its pecentage of the na- 
tions Negroes if they were equal- 
ly distributed? 

Congressman Avery said he rep- 
resents only one of his state's five 
Congressional districts and could 
not speak for the state as a whole. 
Q.— Should a list of all com- 
panies in Mississippi supporting 
the NAACP be made available 
to the Citizens Councils for ap- 
propriate action? 
No panel members volunteered a 
reply to this question, and the mod* 
erafcwwaaed that it did«*noHieal 
with national affairs. 


I (United Press Staff Correspondent 

I The South's White Citizens Coun- 
cils, little more than^one year old, 
I today stand as a majof challenge 
[.to the organized movement toward 
public school integration, 

The councils now, claim 65,000 
. dues^paying members in Mississip* 
pi and uncounted members in other 
Southern states in which they 
J spjang up. * 

F headers hope to gain supremacy 
[ over* the widespread, intensivelj 


organized National Association for 
the Advancement of Colored Peo- 
ple, which has sponsored the legal 
battle against .public school segre- 

First chapters openly recom- 
mended economic sanctions as a 
chief means of combatting the de- 
segregation movement but council 
leaders now rely on the public in- 
fluence of their members. 

The membership now represents 
a cross-section of the most influ- 
ential, church-going white citizens 
of the communities, according to 
£ W. Simmons, Mississippi state 
I administrator. 

I "If -you take the Farm Bureau, 
Rotary, Kiwanis and Lions clubs 
out of the Citizens Council move- 
ment,*' he said, "you wouldn't have 
much left." 

Charge Red Plof 

The councils preach the doctrine 
that attempts to break down segre- 
gation are part of a Communist 
plot to destroy America by mix- 
ing the blood of the "superior" 
white man, 

One rural chapter meets every 
Saturday afternoon, Simmons said. 

"They bring picnic lunches and 
sit around and talk about segre- 
gation and the NAACP/* 

The movement has spread into 
cites. The Jackson chapter has 
1,300 members and the board of 
directors includes a number of 
chfrch lay leaders. 

VSegregation is a holy thing, 1 

haven, Miss., told one of the six 
New Orleans chapters last week*; 
"I care not what any Marxist; 
Christian or minister says, I can! 
cite chapter and verse in the 
Bible." i 

One pamphlet distributed by the! 
councils quotes Scriptures in de- 
fense of segregation. It was writ*! 
ten by a former Presbyterian col-j 
lege president, Dr. G. T. Gillespie* j 
Rapid Spread , 

Brady, one of the movement's 
organizers and its- most-used speak- , 
er t is author of a booklet called j 
"Black Monday." It stresses white > 
supremacy and cites Communist; 
influences which Brady says are> 
behind the Supreme Court decision 
outlawing public school segrega-t 
tion. 1 

The first council was formed 5 
in July of 1954 in Sunflower County; 
in the heart of the state's rich 
cotton-growing "black" belt an<d! 
spread rapidly across the state*] 

In their early days the councils:; 
openly admitted the use of "eco- 
nomic pressure" against Negroes 
who openly, favored integration. 
But a recent newspaper storjr ap- 
proved by the councils said that 
economic pressure was -not or- 
ganized by the councils. 

Individuals who belong to coun- 
cils may have persuaded Negroes 
to remove their names from school 
integration petitions by various 
means short of violence, the dis- 

Circuit Judge Tom Brady of B rook- [patch said, 

"These means could include fir 
f ing employes, or refusing to .renew 

leases for share-croppers who 
.. - nave followed the NAACP line," it 

; Jj^ , was reported. 

v# ' > Shortly after several integration 

petitions were filed by the NAACP 
-' " ~ in Mississippi, Negroes began re- 

moving, their names. One petitio n 
thaj^caxried 40 signatures' hi the? 
end had less than 10- j 

[ASSOCIATION of citizens council 


Ijackson, miss. 


'age IOA Col. 6 - &: 





, *V« v f 


ML/.. "TjH^L 

17' TO 

191 NOV 25 \<£& 

/ . 

0-19 (7-8-55) 

Easffond Calls 

Far All-South . 
Racist Body A 

WASHINGTON, Nov. i.-Sen, 
Jame* + Eastland (D-Miss) has 
advised Southern states to band 
together through an official com- 
mission to "combat * ♦ « vicious 
propaganda against the South and 
its institutions;' it was learned to- 

Eastland's call for a united 
Southern front was apparently 
prompted by the growing realiza- 
tion that many Southern officials 
are expressing a willingness to ae-J f . , , 

cept integration in some form. In negation but wished to provide 
the recent past Eastland has ex- a . means *P $ ve ^?A race5 *' a 



pressed alarm at events of an in 
terraejal character in Tennessee, 
Arkansas and Oklahoma. His plan 
Seek* to keep "doubtful*" Southern 
States in the pro-segregation ranks, 

In outlining his plan a few days 
ago to representatives of the Jack- 
son (Miss.) Daily News,, Eastland 
is quoted indirectly as sayingt 

"Much of this propaganda 
/against the South, especially since 
the unpunished murder of 14- 
year-old Emrnett Till in Missis- 
sippi) is inspired, and financed hy 
Communist-front and race-minded 


made it clear in the 

chance to be heard/' The group 
sought to placate the Governor 
with the need for hearing out 
many ^respectable Negroes' who; 
would like to have a "moderate 
voice" in the settlement of the 
racial issue. 

This plea for , peaceful coexist- 
ence for Negro and white in Geor-j 
gia appeared mueh to radical for; 
the Governor who cited the failure] 
of such commission to satisfy- Gov.) 
Hugh White in Mississippi. The 
Mississippi commission had been 
split on its report. A minorjty up- 
held segregation while all of the 
Negro members held that segrega- 

Mr. Tolson 

Mr. Boardmcm 
Mr. Nichols — 
Mr. Belmont _ 

Mr* Harbo 

Mr, Mohr 

Mr. Parsons — 

Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoo 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman — 
Miss Gandy 

aon was unacceptable. It did not 
jt*u;uu& tuc u. o. supreme uourr 1 fvft hevond the report, 
decision which illegalized segre- 
gated schools. He did not mention 
Uie court but urged that every 
available means be used to "de- 
fend state soverignty,'* 

Another purpose of the pro- 
posed commission, according to 
Eastland, would be* to spread the 
idea or' white supremacy through- 
out the country to offset the mass 
movement ibr the creation of only 
on* class of citizen ixi the U. S.j 
On tin's, Eastland declared; 

"Millions of fair-minded Ameri- 
Can* in other regions, denied ac* 
| <tess io the truth, are being hood- 
winked, misled and deceived by 
tills cunning program (to enforce 
I the anti-segregation ruling).** . 

Eastland said the ttfegro is being 
used as a pawn m the desegrega*- 
tion drive by those Avho are at- 
i tacking the powers of states and' 
*the American system of govern- 
The present Eastland line of at- 
l fk continues that which called 
Ifor^ri investigatiSn of Com>«mnist 
|Ajfluwwes upon the IT* S. Suprfeqe 

tCourt Jh reaching the ant£-s>egrega> \T " \ 

I tion decision. { A 




\y \~ 

s < 


126 NOV 7 1955 

Wash. Post and 
Times Herald 

Wash. News 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald _ 

N. Y. Mirror 

Daily Worker ^ j 

The Worker — 

New Leader 




Pally Mews Honored 

Reds Ignite Hate For South 
To Squelch Conservatism, 
Judge Brady TellsCouncil 

BEIiZONI, Miss. (Special)— Cir- 
cuit Judge Tom P. Brady told the 
Humphreys County Citizen Council 
Wednesday night that the "genius 
•of America" has always been be- 
low the Mason and Dixon line, 

"It is wise for the Socialists 
and Communists to. encourage 
Northern hatred for the South/' 
Judge Brady declared, "because 
we are the most conservative ele- 
ment in America, , the cradle of 

Speaking to a capacity audience 
in the Belzoni High School Audi- 
torium, Judge Brady said, "There 
are three times as many mea of 
color who hate you because your 
inate intelligence allowed you to 
rise above the brute/' * 

He said the black race doublds 
itself in 40 years, the yellow ra<ie 
in 50 years and the white race in 
60 years. 

Major Frederick Sullens, editor 
of the Daily News, was awarded 
a plaque by the state organiza- 
tion in recognition of his courage 
^ in "upholding our Southern way 
of life." The plaque was pre- 
sented by W* J. Simmons, ex- 
ecutive secretary of the Citizens' 
Council, to Tom- Harsell, who 
represented Major SuIIens. 
Judge Brady said Egyptian gen- 
ius was destroyed by the mixture 
of white and black races. 

"Cleopatra was as* white as the 
whitest Southern lady/* he said. 
"Bjt the infiltration of other rajjes 
brought the Egyptian civilization 
.down forever, never to rise again." 

He traced the growth of Social-j 
ism in the United States, pointing! 
out that the income tax was one of 
the first socialistic programs which, 
increased under President Roose- 

The National Association, for the 
Advancement of Colored People 
was organized in 1909 he said, be- 
cause the "communists had failed 
in their attempts to corrupt the 
Negro" becuase of his training by 
white people and his "basic loyal- 

'It became fashionable in the 
early 1900's for American-ministers 
to study in Germany," Judge Brady 
said, "and they returned to this 
country preaching Marxist Ch|is- ! 
Canity." '* , 

4 J • 


Mr. Tolc i 

Mr. Boarlman 

Mr, Nicbols 

Mr. Harbo 

Mr. llohx 

Mr. Parsons 

Mr. Bo^-n 

Mr. -Tc^am 

Mr. Sizoo 

Mr. WinterrowcL 

Tele. Boom 

Mr. Holiuman 

Miss Gandy 

^ ri '/ 

v y 


126 MOV 14 1955 

-***— IMfrhAkM**** 


ITHE daily news 



|Page x 5 Cols. 6 fe.7^ . rtC c 

[Section 3^ ',•> fcV# 14 ^. 



6£ '$> 

Ay ord of Praise 



'JACKSON, Miss.— Next time i urilinjber 
■by pprlable artillery I may be in- another 
state^-and in. another mood— but right now 
'. I've 'got one long-Rebel. Yell for "01? 'Miss,''' 
Here is a sovereign, .state which* 'boldly 
takes arms against its; sea of trouble and, 
by ^opposing, seeks to- end it. Hacia'J gela- 
tions are the- chief cause of -trouble. Any- 
.. body. can. sit 'in *he corner with his* moral 
-compromises' -or .can bow his neck' to- what 
;is -rational,, wfTat is inevitable. - Anybody 
can— bufr,can not and sti'll be a true ^Mis- 
sissippian. Down h.ere they don't play the 
game that way. White folks ,' down here 
are for white supremacy, - * ' * 

That attitude of -no-compromise, nd-ap^ 
;p easement, no-an,ology ( no-indqcision-ofi 
the-spul-in-tormeh^.as a minority posture, 
in pur times, , If , is undoubtedly reactiqn- 
■. ary, it is possibly reprehensivler-^but, oh 
ray soul,. ho L w refreshing! - , 

«" * * * : _ 

UNDERSTAND, "Ole Miss'Ms not with- 
out her foibles, ,and even some Pecksniff " 
fe'ry. Whatever the man's; sincerity,, I'm 
not much impressed' by the ^Nordic who- 
says that most ;Negro people really like 
* segregation and: believe *that it's the best 
thing for<both rapes. And £ am not deeply 
convinced by the Negro who says that his- 
people desire nothing, more than the right 
io 'educational integration and that they'd! \ 
waive tlje exercise 6£ other rights." 

Some iruth, no -doubt, lurks within, each! 
of these assertions, ,hut neither -of themes, 
Impreisiye mv convincing. Not for such 
occasional' sophistry (which Is far from 
being, characteristic and typical)- is '-'Ole 
Miss' 1 ' to "be celebrate dY but for the fear- 
less actions- and forthright statements' in . 
behalf of 'her Sovereign integrity as a re- 
publican , form .of 'government. 

Qn May 17th; 1954, the Supreme Court* 
of, the United 'States issued its decision " 
-against . school segregation." Two months, 
l at f£i almost to the^day, 1*4' men gathered 
at indianola; Miss., and formed the first- ' 
Citizens' Council; "the basic unitof the non? 
Violent,, non-secret Resistance Movement, 
which is. now the* strongest' popular- fe*rce 
in the- IT Southern States, The>ms#nber- 
-ship /iJVe in this state is launched' in, 
language which yrfll not attract tbejfaint? . 
hearted or the half-mlhded, ° 

"IP YQIf BELIEVE there can .be no 
compromise on. :the' matter of 'Segregation; 
If you believe that Integration will bring 
evils of miscegenation; if you; believe that 
social intermingling and niiscegehatfon 
will, be seriously detrimental to* both races 
a>d' to our civilization; if you* realize that 
H&PP .PP^mHnist IgHuences or economic 
pressure groups Stan d/b^i^ every effort 
to -Invade States' Rights and force Integra- 
tion- and'miscegenatiori on the people of the 
people of"th$*:SdutK; if you! believe in tHe 
rights of the sovereign states td handle 
their own Internal affairs; if you realize 
that indifference,,. apathy 'and the inclina- 
tion of some -tot * accept desegregation / as 
^Inevitable" are- our* greatest.' enemies; if 
you are positively dedicated; in yoiii: dwn^ 
niihdf to the preservation; of segregation 
^" ' f ^autujwul^catioiw.oj:^ ,a ualificationV * * 

Mr. Tclson. 

Mr. BZQ£&2&TL-J, f & 

. ^ — LttJL? 

' Mr. »7\ilarrowd_ 
Tcl*\ Room. 

Mr. Holir-man 

M , i Candy. 



/ - 


191 nov io ms 






__F1 LED . 

OCT 27 1955 


pu^/ r ^i^T iMiiiuiuiieminp 

that ihUlilUlUULH,. JiyUUU uim 1 1 - 

tlon of some to. accept desegregation as, 
"Inevitable" are our greatest enemies,^ 
you are positively dedicated, ta-yourown_ 
mind, to the preservation! of segregation 
without equivocation or ? ua J ifica "% !n ^ 
you. are ready and willing to do someging- 
positive about this very serous- and Present 
problem— then you should _ immediately 

30 All' such notices carry the names of the. 
Citizens' Council which distributes them, 
as well as the address and phone- number 
of the headquarters. This is no Klan re-, 
vival. It is no Vigilante movement. Tfte 
leaders are among the best men in tlie- 
community. Great care is exercised to 
exclude of expel persons of rowdy reputa- 
tion and behavior/ The basic purpose, so 
stated' of these. Councils is 'the main- 
tenance of segregation by all legal, and 
legitimate means." + 

THE RESISTANCE movement .has been 
. called rebellion and civil disobedience and 
an attempt to retreat into- the past. Ai 
this may be so. Rut the rebellion is, not 
so nS against our federal- government 
as against the invisible authority of a One 
Worldist government which seeks to gob- 
ble up our own. The disobedience is of the 
sort that Thomas Jeffersdn described as 
"obedience to God." Atid the retreat int o 
the past looks more like a resolute re- 
fusal to fly from, sacred and beloved 

'^Ohf'thlng "Ole Miss" has ™@?&™* ' 
better than most of her sisters in the Un- 
ion-she has brought the very best Peo- 
ple of her community into the practice of 
self-government. Hamilton called them- 
the |SS™he rich and the^vise. Jefferson, 
vV equal approval, calleoV them -the ^aris- 
tocrats of "virtue and' talent. Th«<M- , 
publican form of government,.. as tteCoj- 
'stitution names ife s not pure, democracy. 
But SShSf ™ political 'bos^hood which- 
runs many of our states with a lot lea 
regard for the pebple By; and large I 
believe, the kind of self-goVernment that 
the founders intended still holds the fort 
' In Mississippi. - * .- . 

0-19 (7-8-55) 




Mr. Tolson 

Mr. Boctrdman 
Mr. Nichols _ 
Mr. Belmont _ 

Mr. Harbo 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons _ 

Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoo 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr, Holloman _ 
Miss Gandy 

JAJ^LIjL^ABJ^JJEI^J. *** .. &"™ J d t* t A 4 &fjv?s<>s. *ss*fj> / 

ississippi State Auditor 
hite Citizens Councils' Drive 


a£^i I w ^T^E*, .?»•» au-/tl,er charge (b»t it "incites murder "It is your .race that'* tm for 

W*L °^' " * r^S 8 * ?*' aDd >>™*ta*rj « * only trying to'lim^on? m ^frfeiid A ?d f fa " ! 

White Citizens Councrf Jws : interest white people "to stop any mhinrity r ce In £fc «L n t 

TKif^f j x, ,e WCC Ilsted M the Daily it woutd be the grossest unuHance- 

ffiton- of racism GoWing told' the former football star, now WCC AnTtbe™ variation of w . 
lugb state offiwal \vl»o !* a mein-liHomincnt Coahoma Co unt yjeofratry"- " 


'The U. S. is its (white races) 
greatest stronghold; * its last bus 
But there- h a small voice or 

,ber of the White Citr/ens Conn- wholesale grocer; John W. Du- 

( ?Jfi^ e ^ l ? h ^M°^. on H Ia «W T ™** County attorney; 
halt oi warding oft mtegtutioiu Dan Keel, superintendent of Mori 

now C & wr^ ^ *!* en ? i?** Sch00l > and **» SaN — — - * *»«« voice or 

nemK/LftrN *** A% ' ocn . lti<m " . f I ***«<* the madness at theSVcC 

• n «™oeii or tbe NAAOP (who aie}i In a companion piece to the" and the Tacl<son Dailv \W« 

White ei>e n * JwS WwL *S '"Wfly mart call to- arms Robert Bowman, who wrote in a 
'are ZLr,'l f? J- rt ,hi?'S v .^V-ewe SiJImb Ogden. Miss letter which the News published: 
iaie nuking it plam that their Ogden accused "northern Ne- "Whv not diron the en m ,„ , 

K •' ?f J»«»me«ntti and white race-not by death, but by, the unChristian uudemoeritie a* 
Ipolesswoal eaders. "No hood- court order." Deploring the insist- preaches uthVvo Hut male 

S Z t rr*t f U,<i t " 0, r' tt,ce ° 1 ' ?**>«** ™* ^ M«^ conscientious ££* ifce S- 
3 ^t ,n^ r „ t ^* f Uy ^ "l x,n , <1 " forc »'g «» V. & Supreme 'Millsaps student and nnsell 

"?"T ™ l - uamp , ,{ «" tho. foremost Courts mandate against segrecat- 1 ashamed to 1»» -i \f?<K;<:« 1 in»r.i I r a 

Neu,. And the Couneil darns' m tearfnl pro,e: , n^pnJird a Mrnilar oA,4:!l!) 

j ^ / "" , _ 

Wash. Post and 
Times Herald 

Wash. News 

Wash. Star 

N. Y. Herald _ 

N. Y. Mirror 

Daily Worker _2- 

The Worker 

New Leader 

nat. OCT &6T9S 5 

<r"¥* : 





Affairs of State 

Citizens Councils B ei&g 

Organized Hi j Many 
bf State by folding 

Mr* Tolson- 

Mr. Boardman — 

Mr. Nichols 

Mr, Belmont 

Mr, Harbo . . 

Mr Miht* - 

Mr. Papons 

Ma Poa^n . ,. ... 

Mr. Tamm - 

Mr. Sisoo. > 

Mr. Winterrowd- 

Tele. Room - 

Mr. Holloman 

Miss Gandy , , „, 

JClarion Ledger Staff Writer \ 
State Auditor-Elect E. BAGoId- 
ing, former Benton school super- 
intendent* is stumping many\gec- 
tions of the state on behalf of the 
■Mississippi Citizens' Council, 
He is taking a lead in helping 
to organize new local councils 'and 

a strong Citizens* Council aMiuyas $&}22 a » state secretary, artery 

oj-ganized. Taking a lead role in/ actiVe - 

t^e organization there was John Tne y Point out that there are 

Satterfield, president of the Mis- " * - - - ■ 

sissippi^State Bar and W. J. Sim- 
mons, secretary to the Jackson 
Citizens* Council. 

Strong Councils 

vv „*„ — «, „ *„^„ t *. M «„v,« a ««v* In addition, Golding also spoke 

interest white people in all sec*i recently at Citizens' Council ral- 

tions in joining up. - iies irf Leake and Scott counties] -c-anwtauu ieus mat me iasb 

Mr. Golding tells us that insofar i where he tells that there are now 'membership drive in Citizens' 
as he can -learn, he is the only! strong Citizens' Councils. 'Councils starts this month, and 

| high state official whois a mem-] As a little sidelight, we can tell! ur § e s all to join. 

only 250,000 members of the Na* 
tional Association for the Advance- 
ment of Colored People in the en- 
tire nation. Vet they are daring! , 

and so far, getting the Jiest advan-j draw up proposed charter and 
tages over millions of whites in'byMaws and nominations for cfei- 
the South* . ceas and directors at next mtfet- 

Patterson tells that the 1956 

age membership in the Council I Councils very seriously and that 
JDespite all of the talk ab oju t\ he feels other state officials, now 
preservation of segregation, tlh e n * °^ ce or to take office Jan. 1,' 
one biggest force oh behalf ff snould - stand by and support and 
warding off integration lies in the worlc £ or tne Councils, 
strength of the Citizens' Councils, ,. Be tnat as if: m ^ none can say 
Golding tells. ttafc the intrepid Golding isn't 

Calls for Joining Hands ™?™{f hi ? fl f k ^Politically 

Speaking to a large number of ^ d ,°^r w fe for what he believes 
Rankin couhty school teachers a J . n r}h mm % mdeed * »«« 
few days ago, he'called upon them | th ? f * -J** > s <r rvice * L 
to join hands with the Citizens' \J1 1S intere stmg to note that 
Councils and the Mississippi 'I^gal^l are »<w some 60,000 white 
Education Advisory Committee to 2? ze . ns : e ? r <5J. ed ' m &e ranks of 
fight the NAACP. Mississippi Citizens Councils for 

"I challenge the membership of 5® r £7*° se of ''mobilizing Mis- 
the Rankin County Teachers' As- £J ? to guard both whltesr a nd 
sociation to join wholeheartedly groes * 
with the LEAC and state Iegisla- ^ Active Councils 

ture in their efforts to preserve 
segregation in our schools," Mr. 
Golding said. 

'"All the teachers, workijig; 
' through the Mississippi Educatppfl 
Association could be the greatest 
force in Mississippi's fight to con-j 
tinue our southern way of life," 1 
the auditor-elect declared. 

Ifc^Solding tells us that he re- 
cently spoke at Mendenha#7jpifcre, 


|.THi: clauto? 1 l v dg:r 


10/23/5% o$ 
ppgo 3.5 Cols. 

Officials of the Mississippi Citi- 
zefs Councils, including former 

speakers Robert Burns, Ellis W. 
Wright and W. J. Simmons — 
Chairman Prof. Dan Keel, super- 
intendent of Florence High SchoA. 
.October 13th. J 

Simpson County organizational 
meeting at Mendenhatt — speak- 
ers Auditor elect E. B. Golding v 
and John Satterfield, pres. Missis- V 

sippi Bar Assn. and W. J. Sim-Ht , fl . ,. nM , , _ 
- - ' «* fact,, the 263 state Cou; 

the Councils, and in their ranks 
may be found the names of the 
foremost citizens. We are told that 
tljis rule will prevail. 
t The Council hides behind noth- 
ing, and newspaper publicity is in- 
vited. Officials are open for inter- 
views^ press and radio at any 

mons. Chairman C. D. MullinsJt , f ct t £ he 263 state , Coui f ils j 
Mendenhall, Board of directors fa- av e - Jqst b egtm OP 6 ^™ of an] 
elude representatives of each vot-| 
ing precinct. October 17th. { 

Tunica County Citizens' Council 
rally October 18th at Tunica High 
School. County Chairman is John 
W. Dulaney, Jr. prominent attor- 
ney. Speaker was W. J. Simmons, 

Panola County was organized at 
Batesville meeting. Delegation 

.sissipp* State, College £ootba$>f TOm Coahoma County Citizens* 

cabtam Robert (Tut) Patterson, ot 

atu - /u 


Mn 1 ' 


9 ^ "> 

CounciHed by Mr. P. F. Williams, 
Sr., prominent wholesale grocer, 
helped organize. Mr. Williams was 
-principal speaker. 

Lee County was organized at 
TupelGPnileeting October 19th. 
Steering committee appointed^ 




"7 IB 

5..-' $ 

ft*- I 


J ,D 



officisU^gjvspaper "The Citizens 
Council" dedicated to the* maitite* 
nance of peace, good order and 
tranquility in our community and 
in our state and to the preserva* 
tion of states' rights. 

In a lead story this month, the 
public states that * 'economic pres- 
sure" has not been applied by the 
Council leadership, but says frank- 
ly that some individuals may 
have attempted it 

Such pressures* leaders ' s a y, 
would have been applied by indi- 
viduals whether ^the Councils had 
existed or not. They state ih'at 
their aim 5s not economic pres- 
sure and that the Councils have 
only served to "channel pub 1 i c 
feeling away from violence and 
toward an orderly handling of 
race relations in a state where 
.whites and Negroes are evenly di- 

"Especially/* th e newspaper 
states, "do they deny NAACP 
charges that the Councils have 
created an atmosphere that incites 
murder and lynching. They cite 
instead, instances in which they 
have prevented bloodshed." 

Councils are usually organized 
hy leaders in the community 
wfliere a need is seen. Permanent 
eificers elected may include a 
chairman, vice « l chairman, secre- 
tary and treasurer and a board of 
directors. Four key committees 
are usually appointed. They are 
Information and Education; Legal 
Advisory; Membership and Fi- 
nance and last but not least, PO-! 
litical and Elections Committee. < 

Councils may be organized mu- 
nicipally or county-wide. 

PICK-UPS — Down in Pasea- 
goula, folks say that the giant In* 
galls Shipyards will in the near 1 
future get a contract to build an 
atomic-powered submarine .... If, 
this comes to pass, Ingalls will* 
emerge as one of the major Naval j 
building stations in the world.:,, j 
Russia is already reported to have 1 
an atomic-powered sub that ouU 
does anything we have ..,. Con-' 
gressman W. M. (Bill) eolm er.i 
Pascagoula, is described to us byj 
Washington newsmen touring Mis-i 
sissippi as one of the most infiu-| 
ential members of the lower house) 
of the U.S. Congress ... Mayor; 
Laz Quave, of Biloxi, was present! 
at a luncheon given by the Mis^ 
sissippi Manufacturers' Associa-i 
tion honoring Gov. Hugh White J 
arid Qov. - Elect J. P. Colemk 
ja'tfew days ago at the Buena Vfs- 
ta Hotel, but he did not make a 
welcoming address... Lt Gov. 

Carroll Gartin, of Laurel, was de-; 
scrjjtod-at that selfsame JutwJ* on; 
by Pres. George Huth of the MMA] 
as the vote-gettingest man in Mis,^ 
sissippi politics. . . Now G a r t i n* 
wants to know "Where was! 
George last summer?". . . T o n y \ 
Ragusin, manager of the Biloxi i 
Chamber of . Commerce has a co-j 
lor film of the Mississippi G u 1 f j 
Coast, 17 minutes long, 16mm, ; 
which he will lend to any civic or ; 
service club for showing, and, it is 
a beauty, folks. v Gov. Hugh White: 
didn't tarry long at the Southern j 
Governors' Conference, in fact, 
he has made it clear thiie and 
again that he has never been tooj 
much taken with such events.... if 
They are telling around the Southi 
that Gov* Frank Clement of Ten- 1 
nessee is letting integrationists get! 
too far only because he hopes and! 
hopes to be a nominee for vie e 
president on the Democratic tic*) 
kefc . » . A Washington newsman? 
thinks that the South ought to be> 
proud that we have a poteniuV 
candidate for President of the* 
United States in the person of' 
Tennesse; s £<n. Estes Kefauver. 
..and, that goes to prove just how. 
mufch some Yankees know aboul 
thelDeep South, where Kefauverf 
.name is "mud."... 



Colonialism: a New 

by Edgar Snow 

In Defense of 
Movie Music 

by Dore Schary 

October 22, 1955 / 20c 

by Bert Collier 

I\ti This Issue: 
333 • Nationalism-Colonialism: 
The New Challenge 
343 • The Shape of Things 
356" • Wallace Stevens: 1875-1955 


336 • The Reckless Legion 


1 338 • The «W Scandal 

339 • Respectable Racism 

341 • Morocco and the TJ.S, ' 

343 • British Labor's Dilemma * 



345 • The Parody of a Hero 


346 • The Shrinking Security Yardstick 

346 • Books in Brief 
348 • THEATER > 

350 • RECORDS 

by B* Hi HAGGIN 
35"! • ART 

by A. L. CHANItf * 
opposite ; ' ' n . ' 

352 * CROSSWpRD PUZZLE No. 642 
' . by FtfANK W> LEWIS , 

opposite ' * ■ 

333 « LETTI5RS' - 

to Defend of Movie Musici * 

pire electric associations -been ques- 
tioned, nor are the large corpora?- 
tions in the area eager for a change 
"in their sources of power. San Mi- 
guel has depositions from United 
States Vanadium Corporation and 
the Vanadium Corporation o£ Amer- 
ica, -with large uranium mills at 
Uravan and Naturita, Colorado, 
calling its service "excellent." Em- 
pire received citations, under oath, 
of "pretty swell/' and "very* very 
excellent," from the Diamond 
Match Company and -the. president 

of the Colorado Milling Association* 
Other impressive depositions were 
also collected, but the Utah Power 
Commission refused to let thejn be 
read at the hearing. At the same 
time, it spared utilities-company 
witnesses cross-examination when 
they testified that a "dependable 
power supply" was needed. * 

But everyone us entitled to his 
day in court, and there 'will be a 
reckoning. The old cry of sociali- 
zation of power does not ring true 
when the president of the invade* 

achmts no confidence in the ar$a\ 
lets the people remain in darkness/ 
but for R. E. A., and then under- 
takes to seize the lush loads. A large 
Utah Power and Light stockholder, 
whose home 1 had gone without 
power until San Miguel came in, 
testified!; "It" doesn't seenv quite fair * 
for a fellow to pioneer a country 
and then have some other company 
come in and cross his lines to go 
over to some mines/I think the fel- 
low that is there now is entitled to 
the load that might be there." 


Dixie's Citizens Councils . . by Dan Wah field 

Jackson, Mississippi 
THEIR SHIRTS aren't red and they 
don*t wear sheets— after all, times 
have changed, and this is 1955. The 
Citizens Councils that have grown 
up in the South since th^ United 
States Supreme Court decision on 
school integration are composed of 
"respectable" gentlemen and ladies 
(there is now an auxiliary) who are 
dedicated to depriving the Negro of 
his civil rights by means of the 
latest, most up-to-date methods. 

The movement, born in Missis- 
sippi and copied in Louisiana, Ala- 
bama, Texas, Arkansas, Florida, 
Georgia, and South Carolina (with 
similar but differently named or- 
ganizations in Missouri, Tennessee, 
-North Carolina* and- Virginia) is a 
proud, flag-waving challenge to what 
one council leader labelled the 
"socialistic doctrine" passed on May 
17> 1954. And at iv an answer to the 
call of United States Senator 
James O, Eastland of Mississippi, 
who, shortly after the Supreme 
Court decision was rendered, de- 
clared: "We are about to embark 
on a great* crusade, A crusade to re- 
store Americanism, and return the 
control of our government to the 
people. . ... Generations of South- 
erners yet unborn will cherish our 
memory because they will realise; 

VAN WAKEFIELD covered the 
Till murder trial on assignment 
from The Nation. 

October 22>m5 

that the fight we now wage will have 
preserved for them their untainted 
racial heritage, their culture/ and 
the institutions of the Anglo-Saxon 
race. We of the South have seen the 
tides rise before. We know what it 
is to fight. We will carry the fight 
to victory." 

IN THE FACE of the rising tides, 
fourteen men met together in San- 
flower county, Mississippi, in July, 
1954, and formed the first Citizens 
Council One of those original cru- 
saders, a thirty- two-year- old, red- 
headed planter from Indianola, Mis- 
sissippi, who had fought the good 
fight as captain of Mississippi State's 
football team not too many years 
before, is now executive secretary 
of the state council The zeal of this 
man, Robert D. "Tut" Patterson, 
has been rewarded with a mush- 
rooming of Mississippi membership 
to more than 60,000. When recently 
.asked what he thought about Mis- 
sissippi Governor Hugh White's 
estimate that integration was 100 
years away, Mr. Patterson promptly 
replied, "I say 6,000 years." 

"This isn't just a delaying action/' 
he said. "There won't be any inte- 
gration in Mississippi. Not now, not 
100 years from now, maybe not 6,000 
years irom now**maybe never/' 

Attorneys, bankers, planters, 
mayors, former local chamber of 
commerce presidents, and assorted 
scnool officials are among the civic , 

leaders who have joined to help 
"Tut" Patterson hold back the flood. 
Just how they are going about it is 
rather vague, at least in official 
council announcements. It was first 
reported that the councils, although 
definitely opposed to violence, 
would keep the land pure by "eco- 
nomic pressure." The idea of "eco- 
nomic pressure" drew many bad 
press clippings, however, and now 
"Tut" Patterson says there is no 
such thing. 

"We do not recommend economic 
pressure," he said. "That's false 
propaganda from the press. But of 
course, we don't denounce 'freedom 
of choice* in business arrangements. 
If employers fire their help, that's 
their business." When asked what 
methods are used in the "crusade" 
if violence and economic pressure 
are not council weapons, Mr. Pat- 
terson laughed and said "Would 
Montgomery Ward tell Sears Roe- 
buck how he operates?" 

One tool used by the Jackson, 
Mississippi, council is a mimeo- 
graphed "confidential communique" 
mailed to members. "Confidential 
Communique No. 14," dated Au- 
gust 22m gave information about a 
Negro named Arrington High who 
publishes^ a newspaper urging in- 
tegration. The "communique" did 
not suggest any action, but merely 
reported the situation. Soon after 
that, ijirrington High was asked to- 
remove his money from a local 


bank, and windows- were s^_^ned 
in his home. 

The councilman 'assume no re- 
sponsibility. They grind out the 
letters on the mimeograph and hope 
that hate and fear will do the rest* 
They talk a great deal about the 
difference between their organiza- 
tion ana the Ku Klux Klan, and yet 
the difference is slight. The klans- 
men hid their faces with sheets and 
paraded their deeds in the open* 
The councilmen hide many of their 
deeds, or at least many of the deeds 
their words- inspire, behind memos 
and mimeographs and parade their 
faces in the open. But whether die 
means be a memo or i fiery cross, 
- the end is the same— a climate of 
distrust and fear that breeds un- 
solved murders ana threats ot more. 
Phone calls threatening death are 
common to the Mississippi Negro 
leaders, and. one National .Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Col- 
ored People official in Jackson said 
snots have been fired into his house. 

IT CAN never, of course, be estab- 
iisned just which of the incidents 

that have occurred since the growth 
ot the councils are results, direct or 
indirect, of council actions. The 
viiite front is so united in many 

Southern towns that the law and 
civic leaders are often dedicated 
first to' their racial commitments 
and second to the duties ot office 
As ^ the Mississippi Citizens Coun- 
cils' Annual Report puts it in re- 
viewing the year's accomplishments, 
''The idea of solid and unified back- 
ing of, circuit clerks, sheriffs, and 
locai and state officials in the proper 
discharge of their sworn duties was 
worked out." 

This racial priority was evi- 
denced at Sumner, Mississippi, when 
the prosecutors m the Emmet t Till 
murder case sent state police to 
search a county jail for a missing 
prosecution witness It was seen by 
a Southern reporter who went to 
Bel/oni, Mississippi, this May to in- 
vestigate the murder of George 
Wesley Lee, a Negro minister who 
had committed the error of trying 
to vote. The reporter was given the 
names of four Negro witnesses. 
When he tried to find them he 
learned they were all in ]aiL The 
."icnft explained, they were Booked 
on charges of "stealing" ^though 
what they, had stolen was straneelv 
unknown. ' & 7 

But all this seems far removed 
from the chaste room in the Hotel 
Walthall in downtown; Jackson, 
wher,e much of the business of the 
Jackson Council and the, state As- 
sociation of Councils is carried on.; 
There a tall, mustachioed man of 
thirty-nine sits at a long metal of- 
fice desk with a/ two-volume "works" 
of Thomas Jefferson on it and a 
wrinkled map of Mississippi scotch* 
taped to the wall above. The man 
,is W* .J. "Bill" Simmons, who pre- 
p?red* for the task ahead with a 
B A. at Millsaps College and grad- 
uate study at Toule, France, an* the 
Sorbonne. He, like "Tut" Patterson 
and three office helpers, is a full- 
time council worker. Recently he 
volunteered to shoulder another 
new burden for the cause-editor- 
ship of a proposed Citizens Council 
newspaper that will hopefullv "grow 
into the official organ of all Citizens 
Councils in the nation." 

The office in Room 203 of the 
Walthall where this and other major 
plans of strategy are hatched is said 
to be a rent-free donation front 
hotel owner E. O. Spencer. Ironi- 
cally enough, Mr. Spencer is a per-, 
sonal and political friend of Her* 
nert Brownell, and the Attorney 
General supposedly uses him to dole 
out what Republican patroiage 
there is in the state of Mississippi. 
*t is a strange connection indeed 
that joins a patron of the councils 
with a man who must bear his share 
of responsibility for the integration 

The office in Jackson like the one 
in Winona where Patterson himself 
holds forth, does not hope to bind 
the hundreds of councils into any 
hierarchy or strictly defined organ- 
ization. On the contrary, the looser 
the network the less the responsi- 
oilitv the leaders need to take. Mr. 
Simmons emphasized that the state 

. -'office has. no jurisdiction ove¥ what> 
local councils may do to help< the 
cause in their own community* 
This approach: allows th<f leader^ 

; formally to disclaim res|>o^sibiljj| 
for any group's actions^allWs, for 

* instance, "Tut" Patterson to say the 
councils don't use economic -pie*: 
' sure, while at Yazoo; City, fifty-three^ 
Negro signers of a petition for school- 
integration were^ refused the pur-v 
chase of food supplies, lost their 
jobs, and had/their credit cut M\ 
until all but/ two of the original 
petitioners removed their names. 
Petitions f or< : school integration were v 
filed late this summer in four other! 
Mississippi/ cities-Clarksdale^ Vicks^ 
burg, Jackson, and Natchez* Legal 
technicalities * that nullified the > pe- . 
titions were claimed, by the' school 
boards, arid names of the petitioners 
were published in local newspapers. \ 
No list remains with all of its orig-/ 

\ signers, , * * 

AS UNWELCOME as the petitions 
are, however, the councils have 
found that they serve to awaken the 
whites to the "danger of mongreliza- 
tion" ^a favorite term of council 
propaganda.) - 

"Our Jackson council started in ■ 
April with only sixty members/' 
Bill Simmons said, "and by mid- 
July we had 300, But after the 
N. A. A; C/P, petition was ii led in 
iate July we went over 1,000 in two 
weeks' time.", - t 

There a^ of course, many sec- ': 
tions of the South where the process 
of desegregation is advancing with 
harmony. In West Virginia, Okla- 
homa, Maryland, Kentucky, and 
Delaware, where Negroes have al- 
ready started to schools with whites 
in one or more cities, the Associa- 
tion pf Citizens Goancils claims no 
foothold. It is areas, such as these, 
proceeding ^aimly with integration, 
tnat are most disturbing to the 
councils. Wherever they can,, coun- 
cil leaders try to monkeywrench this 
kind of progress. Speakers and or- 
ganizers frqm , Mississippi councils 
have traveled through nine other 
Southern states *ta promote their 
cause, and it- was council pressure 
from Mississippi that helped slow - 
the school integration at Hoxie, Ar- 
kansas, which had- progressed -with- 
out incident until white-supremacy 
crusaders came in with propaganda 
arid meetings. These finally culmi- ■ 
nated in threats to- the school super- 
/ - .' The Naticjh 

intendent and an early clpsh% : 
the school's summer 'term/ 

Senator Eastland— who jumps to 
the call of segregation like Pavlov's 
dog to the sound o£ a bell— was 
one of the speakers at a meeting 
where men from Hoxie were asked 
to come for council enlightenment* 
This was the same enterprising 
Eastland who led a, violent one-man 
Senate internal-security subcommit- 
tee investigation of the Southern 
Conference Educational Fund, 
which happened to be the only inter* 
racial group in the South pressing 
for desegregation. 

Senator Eastland hit another high 
point in May when he delivered a 
speech to the Senate "exposing" the 
Supreme Court decision as a Marxist 
plot to destroy the government. The 
court,, he said, had been brain* 
washed by left-wing pressure groups 
who are "part- and "parcel of the 

Senator Eastland 

The integration issue has sub- 

Communist conspiracy to destroy merged other political questions in 

our country/* 

the Deep South, and in many places 

action campaigns have been turned" > 
into contests among the candidate/ 
to surpass e:-:ch other in promises' of 
maintaining segregation*- In/ last 
year's gubernatorial election in 
Georgia, platform planks included 
pledges to go to jail if #e schools 
were mixed, and suggestions thac a 
state board of psychiatrists examine 
any white people who 7 wanted their 
children to. go t6 school with * 
Negroes., - / 

The "crusade** /is on, sometimes 
attached to the nafme of the councils, 
sometimes not-but the mimeograph 
machines are rolling, and new "con- 
fidential communiques" are on the 
way. Racial suppression .has been 
made respectable, and those who 
dpubt it have only to ask how one 
may join the councils, A recent ad- 
vertisement in a Clarksdale, Missis- 
sippi, newspaper urged t all the' 
whites of the county to go to "your 
nearest local bank" and enlist in the 


A Time to Intercede 

by Alexander Werik 

Paris, October 14 
IN THE view of many observers, a 
solemn Anglo-American declaration 
urging Prance to adopt and execute 
a liberal policy toward North Africa 
is the most useful step that could 
be taken at this critical juncture 
in -France's empire affairs. It is 
pointed out that the United States 
especially, with its important vested 
military interest in Morocco, is in a 
strategic position to demand that 
the present chaos be brought to 
an end. 

* The French Assembly debate on 
Algeria, still in progress as this is 
written, emphasizes Premier Faure's 
need Jot* backbone. The Socialists 
have proposed a vote of non-confi- 
dence which is driving the Premier, 
who wants to hold ort to his job, to 
seek the support of the enemies, of 
the liberal policy he is supposed to 
represent. Unless trie government 

contributor to Th<$ Nation* 

acquires the courage to get rough 
with the die-hard imperialists, the 
situation in neither Algeria nor 
Morocco is likely to improve. And 
most observers agree that it will be 
easier for Faure to get rough if he 
knows that He has the active support 
of his Western allies. Although the 
French * die-hards in North Africa 
depend ultimately on Paris for their 
financial and military support, they 
persist in ignoring the will of Parli- 

The name on the* lips of every- 
body who knows anything about 
Moroccan wirepulling is Emile 
Roche. Emile Roche, an old Radi- 
cal-Socialist, and for many years the 
alter ego of Joseph Caillaux, is the 
honorary president of Radical Fed- 
erations of Morocco, a pillar of the 
North African lobby, and the man 
most closely associated with the 
"French Moroccans' organization, 
Presence Francaise. And it is they 
who appeared to have won over the 
new Resident- General, Central 

Boyer de La Tour, who subscribed 
to the astonishing plan of the pup- 
pet sultan, Ben Arafa, handing the 
seals of his office to an obscure 
cousin- instead of to a Crown Coun- 
cil, as agreed upon at, the* Aix-les- 
Bains Conference at 4;he end of Au- 
gust. Great embarrassment in Paris, 
contradictory statements by cabinet 
ministers and press officers, an at- 
tempt by Figaro to persuade its 
readers that what happened was per-, 
fectly normal, and that the regency 
council will be "the next step." At 
the same time a message from Presi- 
dent Coty to Arafa assuring him 
that neither the exiled Sultan Ben 
Yussef nor any of his sons- can pos- 
sibly succeed Arafa on the Moroccan 
throne, whatever happens. 

What it all amounts to is what 
could already be foreseen in Mo- 
rocco a long time ago: a kind of 
"French separatism"— the rule of 
Morocco by the French settlers there, 
independently of Paris— has been in 
swing* General de'- Latour has ob- 



0-19 (7-8-55) 


pro-segregatidn movflfflGfits ""is. 
the Citizens' Councils, "which 
claim 60,000 members in Missis- 1 
Ssippi and are busy in Alabama,; 
^ Louisiana and South Carolina/' 
; He added: I 

"In (Georgia the! 

School Integration* Foes 
increasing, Writers Hear 

** * I "In Georgia thefetate^^gnisj 

Opposition to the Supreme; era of lengthy litigation*" Asjcouncil has assumtsTStalie-wldei 

Court's decision on school segre-Jof last month, -he continued, tnrlportance. The strongest see-! 

gation is great and in some areas*about 134,000 Negro children to\ of opposition is centered in! 
■---■-■--' ..i.~- -«~- sch00 i s which jthe\g£<^aj^^ 

Mr. Tolson 

Mr, Boardman 
Mr. Nichols -i 
Mr. Belmont _ 

JMr. Harbo 

Mr. Mohr 

Mr. Parsons __ 

it is growing, theWatiohal Con- [were 
ference of EditoriaT Writers ^wa's once 




told todayT 
The organization, meeting at 
ft the Hotel Statler, was addressed 
by nnrtYahg^alfifir,!,, executive 
director oi the^outhern^Educa- 
I tion Reporjbmji^ervice. *That 
* organization] with." "headquarters 
at Nashville, is covering the re- 
action to the school integration 
order in the South for American 
newspapers. Mr. Shoemaker said 
it is doing the job "with blank- 
faced objectivity." r . 

He said his organization has 
counted about 15 active pro- 
segregation groups in the South- 
ern and border States. 

He said the school picture in 
the South has "three major di- 
mensions: the relative slowness 
of actual integration; the rising 
fide of opposition, and the news 

were a part 


school systems. About half of 
these, he said- are in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. 

all-white x Government. \^Whit£ 

ginia has its\Defenders of Sti 


B; C. Ratio Highest 

He added that the District 

\WJn^Araej:ica ( | 
3, m Arkansas. Vir- 

Sovereignty and 1 individual Li} 
"North Carolina has seen tj 

now has the "highest Negro I organization ofPatr lots of Norfl 
school population ratio of any Carolina, Inc. \ 

large city in the Nation— 63 perf 

Mr. Shoemaker listed the 
States in opposition to the Su- 
preme-Court as Mississippi, South 
Carolina, Louisiana, Georgia and 
perhaps Alabama. He said that 
policy and private opinion in| 
these States are in favor 
determined resistance. 

■"A Characteristic of many of 
these groups, though not of all 
of them, is that*their leadership 
often is top-drawer and tnat 
( they repeatedly renounce yio< 
lence. Some frankly say they 
_ are exerting economic and other 
of (pressure on Negroes not to peti- 
tion for compliance with the Su- 

Mr, Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoa 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman _ 
Miss, Gandy 

"All five of them ha>ve armed preme Court decision; others 
themselves with weapons which, deny it. There are many verifii d 
they believe will fend off the \ instances of firingf of individml 
Nine Old Men/* he said.. 'Negroes." 

He said perhaps the largest I Mr. Shoemaker said the ques- 



tiorl of integration is now begin- Coi 
ninft to enter the arena of basic 
litigation. He said this is a 
factor in slowing down integra- 
tion attempts. He predicted that 
various plans, programs and de- 
vices for delaying or resisting 
compliance with the court deci- 
sion will occupy the headlines 
as well as the courts for a long 

He listed the border States of 
Deleware, Maryland, Kentucky, 
Oklahoma, Missouri and West 
Virginia as those which . have 
made desegregation a "matterf 
of State policy in greater or 
* lesser degree." 

! In Between States 

? He classified five States as 
! being in between what have 
;been called the "do it now" 
States and those in determined 
I opposition. These are Virginia, 
sNorth Carolina, Florida, Arkan- 
sas, Tennessee and Texas, For 
| the most part, he explained,! 
tthese States hung back between] 
*the two Supreme Court decisions,! 
^ waiting to see the effect of thej 
second, or implementation ruling J 

In another session, Prof. Paul 
A. Freund of the Harvard Law 1 
.School suggested to the editorial 
'writers that newspapers might! 
[well employ specialists on legalj 
reporting who have been trained ;. 
jas lawyers. He said they might! 
■do this just as they hav?e spe-' 
cialistsifoi finnce, drama, science 
an< £«othev su bjects. 

In commenting on' ^o p rettf g: 

t decisions he recommenced [, 
thai the editorial writers not ; 
reply on the summaries in news i 
reports. | 

"Try to digest the case even! 
though .it means waiting until { 
the full pext of the opinion comes l 
before you," he advised. | 

He said also that it would be! 
good to avoid statistical analy- 
s is of Jud ges' positions .jn terms I 
or conservatism and liaerfcuiwu. \ 





1 mot mcojiDED 
WS.OC. i- 1955 

Wash. Post and 

Times Herald 

Wash. News 

(T3rWash. Star _ 

N. Y. Herald 

N. Y. Mirror _ 

Daily Worker . 
The Worker - 
New Leader _ 



dizens' Council Denies- \ 
Organizing An Economic] 
Boycott Against Negroes 

^.^^rtmrtxT on /jm ._a ^ ^0 tr•pnTY^n^1shmfinf: ,, of the councils 


figure in the Citizens' Council 
movement in Mississippi denied 
here last night that its purpose is 
to organize an economic boycott 
against Negroes. ■ 

Rather, said W. J. Simmons, the 
councils exist "for the purpose of 
arousing, concerting and express- 
ing public opinion ... the heart 
and soul (of the movement) is 
nothing more or less4han the town 

Simmons, administrator or the 
Assn. of Citizens' Councils of Mis- 
sissippi, spoke at a rally for the 
Citizens' Council movement, along 
with Gov. Marvin Griffin of Geor* 
igia and S. E. Rogers, Summerton, 
IS.C, lawyer and defender of school 
[segregation in the courts. . m 
I A crowd of about 1,500 interrupt- 
ed the speakers with frequent ap- 
i plause. . „ ■,„• 

Griffin declared Georgia 'will, 
have separate public schools or no k 
Ipublic schools." < 

I Those introducing the speakers) 
were U.S. Rep. L. Mendel Rivera 
j(D-SC), Lt Gov. Ernest F. Boi- 
lings of South Carolina, and Micah 
Jenkins, temporary chairman of 
'the Charleston Citizens' Council. 
i Simmon? said the Citizens' Coun- 
I cil movement began at a meeting 
- of 14 men in Indianola, Miss.-, not 
long after the May, 1954 decision 
[ of the Supreme Court ' outMingL 
public school racial segregation | 
I' V He declared "the first major acj 

complishment" of the councils inl 

Mississippi was passage of a state-j 
constitutional amendment to raise] 
voter (qualifications. He declared j 
the amendment's purpose "is to; 
insure that those citizens who doi 
qualify, white or black, are fully i 
aware of their r6sponsilities as-j 
American citizens ..." 

Simmons* suggested steps to ap*; 
proaching the segregation problemi 

are* * 

' i Creation and maintenance of i 
a powerful organization of "respon-j 
sible white people'* in the South) 
to "protect their rightful interests.", 

2. Counterattack to the forces-* 
which he identified as the National} 
Assn. for the Advancement of Col-> 
ored People— "laying siege to- our* 
separate communities." . 

3, Conformity to the plan, orj 
^**t it {ah** wtitaln Simmoir J " ,A ?' 

■States 1 Rights whieh Simmoir 1 ^ 
clared was laid down by TF 
Jefferson and James Madisi 


Mr. Mpnr. 

Mr. ^arsons- 

Mr. R'vsmx 

Mr. T* 
Mi*. ;%*r^ 








WOT mCOTit).-& 

183,001 lb 1955 

3V2 3 7-./*. 


tO/5/ r - 5 

fage -1 Col. 7 & 8 


.x^a-o . 

OCT ft 1955 



•Oflf* (7-8-55) 






*<~* '..-* 

Asks Aid in 


Calls on XL S* To 
. Protect Negroes | 

WASHINGTON; Sept, 7 (IB.— j 

>The National Association for 

* the Advancement of Colored 
[People called on the Depart- 
ment of Justice today to act 

* immediately to hait what it la- 
beled a "state of jungle fury" 

In a formal petition, the as- 
sociation said 'the Mississippi 
White Citizens Council has cre- 
ated an atmosphere of violence 
that has led to the murder of 
three- Negroes, hundreds of, 
threats, a drastic reduction in 
Negro voting and countless inv 
stances of intimidation. 

"This clearly calls for prompt 
and effective action by the Fed- 
eral government," the petition 
said* '"Every moment of delay 
compounds the national shame." 

The statement was handed to 
Assistant Attorney General War- 
ren Olney 3d, head of the de- 
partment's criminal division, by 
Roy Wilkins, executive secretary 
of the N. A, A. C. P. Clarence 
Mitchell, Washington represent- 
ative, and other officials of the 
organization were present. 

Specifically, the petition 
charged that the White Citizens 
Council began generating an 
open reign of terror in Missis- 
sippi more than eight months 

It said this has led to the 
"wanton" killing, of Emmett* 
Louis Till, fourteen-year-old 
Chicago Negro, on Aug. 29; the! 
"murder" of the Rev. George W. f 
Lee, of Belzoni, Miss, on May 7, 
and the shooting of Lamar Smith 
{nJLiiafiQjn County, Miss., on Aug. 


" aftfi-Eederal government can-t 
not escape responsibility by' 
shifting the obligation to the! 
State of Mississippi, which has- 
indicated neither a wiUmgnessl 
nor desire to apprehend and! 
punish the criminal killers or' 
their respectable fronts," the 
statement said. 

i^ 6 N * A - A * a p - also charged 
that Mississippi permitted, an 
open campaign of race hatred to 
he fanned "white-hot" during 
the state governorship elections 
this summer. 

| Attorney General Herbert 
;Brownell jr. announced Sept. f 
that the government is investi- 
gating the Mississippi elections 
to see if Negroes were deprived 
of any constitutional rights. He 
promised "immediate and vigor- 
ous" action if such violations 
were found. 

The department has said it 
has no jurisdiction to investi- 
gate the death of young Till 
who allegedly was slain after he 
whistled at a white woman, it 
has announced it is making an 
inquiry to see' if it has jurisdic- 
tion in the Lee and Smith cases. 

A Mississippi Grand Jury yes- 
terday indicted two white half- 
brothers on charges of murder- 
ing Till: But the N. A. A. C. P 
charged today: "Already it is evi- 
dent that an attempt will be 
made to exculpate them of the 
brutal murder of the lad." 

Mr. Mitchell told newsmen he! 
thought the Federal government] 
could find some legal way to acta 
Jn *hfi Tifl case. »ii-i "hmm . *f 


'Mr. Tolson 


/£vMr. Boctrdman ^C^L. 
Mr. NicAols 1 -4Be^ - 

Mr, Belmont 

Mr. Harbo 
Mr. Mohr - 


Mr. Parsons ,""/ 
Mr. Rosen "fejy / 

Mr. Tamm '- < 
Mr. Sizoo __ 

Mr. Winterrowd^^ 
Tele. Rooio'fl 

1. <H1l ' NOT BE^.onOED 

'$&8EP.19 '955 



Wash. Post and 

Times Herald 

Wash. News - 

Wash. Star *— 

N. Y. Herald / ^L^ 


N. Y. Mirror 

Daily Worker 

The Worker 

New Leader 

DaS£P 8 1% *§- 

Associated Press wfrephoto 

HELD IN BOY'S DEATH— J. V. Milam (left) and Joy 
Bryant, half brothers, in courtroom in Sumner, Miss., 
after, thei r arraignment on charges of Bonaping und 
$y£gj fourteen.yeat.old Chicago N egro boy. They 
both have pleaded mot guilty. 




SA. »• "• 

On #lre Way 

J : 

.- mmmmm - mmmmm hy-ABNER W. BERI 

It Was Different ' 

In Reconstruction 


the U.S. Supreme Court taking 
the legal prop from under the 
so-called "bi-racial society" of 
the former slave states are the 
legal reflection of a movement 
which has been building for 
more than 80 years. 

This movement was smoth- 
ered during the 1880% follow- 
ing the period, called "The Res- 
toration* by southern historians. 
It was during this period that 
Negroes lost their constitutional 
rights as described by Albert 
Burton Moore, the Alabama his- 

# "Negroes « » • were ♦ * . con- 
vinced by suggestions, threats, 
and in some ca£e$ by deeds, that 
it was not wise for them to at- 
tend the polls, or boards of reg- 
istration found reasons for not 
registering them" 

The "deeds" were murders'" 
and the "threats" were threats 
of murder. 


JUST a snort distance south 
of Memphis, on the Mississippi 
Delta* the present white su- 
premacy leaders have sought to 
re-live the old pre-Restorarion 
period* They have been threat- 
ening Negroes who want to vote 
and who insist upon the equal 
right to attend all schools. Rev. 
George W, tee waff Icilled in 
Relzoni, Mk$*> because he re- 
fused to teat up bis poll tax 
^itek But the moment per- 
sist^ £ 

•■^'■ww* f^t&Pi Councils, ■ 
to ^J^Sfil Wh «« mug* 

der, is still active. Negroes are 
on its "list" of those who are to 
be boycotted economically. 
But in Vicksburg Negro parent? 
have petitioned the school board 
demanding that integration 
plans be-, presented in compli- 
ance with the Supreme Court 
desegregation ruling. This is 
happening throughout the Deep 
South, And the Negroes are be- 
ing backed by many influential 
white southerners. 

of the Delta Democrat {Green- 
ville, Miss.), William Faulkner, 
the novelist and at least one 
white minister have spoken out 
for integrated schools. The mm* 
ister, Rev. Roy C. DeLamotte, 
of the Methodist Church, a for- 
mer student of Millsaps Col- 
lege, opposed 
Conference of 

Church resolution opposing in* 
tegrated schools. 

*Tt is foolish to send mission- 
aries to Africa^and the East and 
then cut the ground front under 
feet with this jimcrowism " Rev* 
DeLamotte, told the conference* 
And he said that diplomas is- 
sued by Methodist colleges in 
Mississippi "are stained with the 
tears of Missippi Negroes whose 
children can't attend." 

Rev. DeLamotte was support- 
ed by Dr* Henry Bullock, a for* 
mer MUlcaps professor and*no\y 
editor in chief of all th^hurcll 
Sunday School publications* 
Mississippi was among the iw j 

states whose leading church 
groups maintained a stout while 
supremacy position* So die-hard 
was* |ie position that Rev. De- 
Lamotte was left without a con- 
gregation, the church leaders 
folding that the membership of 
white churches would not have 
a pro-intergration pastor. 

able numbers of white* church- 
men from the jimcrow camp is 
something new- in southern life. 
And it foretells the doom of the 
*bi-raciar system which reserved 
the bottom spot in society for 
the Negro, under the theory any 
white: man is better than any 

the MississipraL^jtffcgro. 

the Methodist [ This development drew from 

Robert B. Crawford, president 
•of the Defenders of State Sov- 
ereignty and Individual Liber- 
ties, the statement that: / 

'The worst obstacle w/ face 
in the light to preserve ^segre- 
gated schools in the South h the \ 
white preacher." 

It was different during Recon- 
struction, Crawford said. And it 
is clear that the outcome of the 
present struggle will be differ- j 
ent toot For 'When the white mas-' 
ses join the Negroes in demand- 
ing their share of the empire 
which the Bourbons have ruled 
for so long, democracy cannot 
be denied* 

This is the restoration period 
of Democracy. The raeig&f be- 
tray their knowledge oFthis in 
tl eir actions. ' * I 




This is a clipping from 
P a g e ^ of the 

( ) Gaily Worker 
(u^The Worker 
( ) New Leader 

AUG 7 1955 . 
Date j 1/ 

Clipped at the Seat of/ 


w » 

i ^ -. FIVE 


126 AUG 10 1955 





63,319 Contributed to Help ^ 
in Mississippi - ^ 

Recent deposits in the Tri-State ting mu- dollars work for democracy 
Baufc ot Memphis lor expanding its* by helping relieve some of the eco- 
eapacity to make business loans to ' nomic pressures put on those fight- 
yietims of the Mississippi "econom- ing against segregation ♦ ♦ " 

ie squeeze"" have brought* the to- 
tal to $268,319, Koy Wilkins, NA- 
AOP executive secretary, announc- 
ed over the week-end, 

In\ covering letter transmitting 
the $10,000 check, Steve Kwiat- 
kowski, recording secretary of the 
UAW" B local, said: "One of our ma 

— ...,„.„ ™«^ v^yv iutyi> sitiu; une or our ma- 

A tratenial organization, amnion jor objectives as a labor organiza- 
loeat and a married couple are tfon has always been the fight to 
among the now depositors. make all people in our counts 

I he American Woodmen with equal, regardless of race, color o\ 
he Jquarters in Denver, made a creed." ] 

deivwit of $10,000 in the bank, as Lawrence H. Lightuet, supreme 
die! Dodge local No, 3 of the CIO commander of the American Wood- 
ln % -id Auto Workers, Hamtnwnck, men, told Mr, Wilkins that the! 
M IV '* *i . , , board of his organization had vot- 

<m ~S!L nd ^P ^ amounting to ed to make the deposit in the Tri- 
9l % m was that of Dr. and Mrs. State BanK^jn order to build up 
LeeliMch of Nashville, Tenm Dr.ja fund to btNused to assist our 
i * *™& ivexsii y Professor, cash-) Negro citizens irTthe state of Mis- 
ed ftis Savings Bonds to make sissippi who mav be confronted 
the .deposit lor the purpose of letjwlth economic sanctions,* 

63 JUL 15 133b -,-. 


126 1 JUL 15 1955 

This is a clipping from 
page £=> of the 

Daily Worker 
The Worker 
Hew Leader 

Date JUL 1 2 1955 

Clipped at the Seat of 
Government .V 



"They haven't been aSftm»Jiurt 
advertising at all/* Carter 
said, although some oJt them re* 
ported that "an economic boycott 
has actually been instituted against 

Carter said the WCC's had not 
been able to get started in Green- 
ville, and lie added that the "reg- 
istrar (in Washington County) will 
register any one who is qualified 
to vote." 

The editor did not think the! 
WCC would, become a "really ; 

Negro teachers in Mississippi are bemg feed from ^jSSLSrSi ^C%r*! 
jobs for insisting upon their right to vote, it was revealed f cctive ln some rmA counties and f 
yesterday in reports by Hoddi ng Carter, editor,of the Green- in communities with large Negro I 
ville, Miss., daily Delta Democrat. ZZTZ~7~T~°~" . , 7, populations." 

istering to 

A number o£ rural Negro teach- 

notified By 
they would 

school officials 
not be needed 

fall if their, names remained on the it 

voters li&Ss. The move against the 

was in Belzoni, county of 

Humphreys County, that the WCC 

crsT^ter said, had already beeng^ tmism results kom ftoUf Mav 7 inspired the ~rn7rder~pf 

tnacTWh ite Citizens Counc il campaign, iRJw. George W. Lee, the milifept 
nextjafld-iridicaies thatTBe business- jNhgro minister who refused (to 




' m=s 1w Hiiiusrer who reruse 
mens hate group, has strong gov-kfor up his polltax receipt a 
ernmental connections. jWCC had orderedL 

i Since school boards are agencies 
of government, and the act of fir* 
ing the Negro teachers is an at- 
tempt to. prevent the exercise of a 
federally - guaranteed right, the 
speculation has arisen as to what 
the Department of Justice will do 
now. There is a law against gov- 
ernmental agencies interfering 
with ?t citizens federally-guaran- 
'feecl rights. 

Carter, a Pulitzer prizewinnmg 
editor, who. has been a mild oppo- 
nent of segregation, said that lie, 
too, had become a target 6f the 
White Citizens Council, He said 
thatoRg?ssure had been placed on 
adverti&ttH&nd readers because he 
has refused to endorse "*ti*^white 
supremacy moves against integra- 
tion. ( 

as fme 

This is a 

(^TDally Worker 
( ) The Worker 
( ) New Leader 


clipping from 
of the 







KELZONI, MISSISSIPPI, continues to challenge 
our professions of democracy and justice. Rev. George j W. 
Lee, the militant Negro minister who was determine^ to 
cast a vote, has been dead now for more than three weeks. 
Every shred of evidence dug up points to the fact that he 
was murdered. The undertaker who handled Rev. Lee's 
body and discovered the pellets under the slain mans, 
skin, now known to be buckshot, has been placed on the 
boycott list of tire White Citizens Councils. And more 
than -90 other .Negroes in Humphreys County have been 
ordered by flfe-^Vhite Citizens Council to remove their 
names from the "Wta^ifetsr * "*""""" ^~ 

At least two Negro witnesses to the assassination last 
May 7 of Rev. Lee have been forced to leave Belzoni. 
» * # 

WHAT MORE DOES the Department of Justice 
need to arouse its suspicions that a conspiracy exists to 
deprive Mississippi's Negro citizens of their federally guar- 
anteed rights? Attorney General Herbert Brownell has 
answered the request of the National Association for the 
Advancement of Colored People for a thorough investi- 
gation with a number of perfunctory motions. Buckshot 
has been analyzed; witnesses interviewed, and other run- 
of-the-mill routines. , ; 

But this is no ordinary murder; Rev, Lee's assassina- 
tion was the work of a conspiracy which has driven a 
number of Negroes out of business; has conducted terror 
forays in speeding automobiles into the Negro communi- 
ties-has declared that the United States Constitution can- 
not protect Mississippi citizens— if they are Negroes. *~ 

The Department of Justice cannot duck this chal- 
lenge of white supremacy lawlessness. We cannot permit 
it to do so if we value our own democratic rights. The 
d(?maM has to persist; 

• Bring the conspirators to justice under the Ia*vs 
protecting, citizens *nnder the Constitution. \J 

• Announce that no voter in Mississippi will be with- 1> 
\ out federal protection in exercising his right to vote. 


76JUN. 3 1955 

•:■ / 

This is a clipping from 
Page ^Z. of the 

J (-yUaUy Worker . 

W# ( ) The Worker 
fll Wr ( ) New Leader 

J,W Date E ■ ! m " 
v n\ Clipped at the Seat of 

' y m 3 S5i 





/. / 



ftness to Murder of 

tyro Pastor Locatet 

An eyewitness to the fatal 

tion o£ the slayers. 

At a memorial service held in 
Belzoni May 22 r the NAACP ex- 
ecutive assured 400 Negro leaders 
from all over the state of continu- 
ed NAACP support in the fight for, 
the ballot, for justice and for de- 

Jj shooting of the Rev t George \V. 

■Lee in Belzoni, Miss., on May 7, 

thas told FBI agents in East St 

ILouis, 111., what he had seen that 

■night, according to ' information 

■received here by Roy Walkins, ex- "^ Wtt " ul » AUA „ jusuue ana ior ae- 

lecutive secretary of the National segregation of the public schools. 
Association for the Advancement^ f x ^ t to sta ^ iu Mississippi] 
of Colored People [ tor ™ duration-until victory is 

The witness, Alex Hudson, was W WfllrfnV!?*?! a a i • i 
located in East St. Louis by theL^ ^ ™ kuded the slain clei T" 
NAACP. He had left MfasWpp!.^^ 
a week after f-hf* Mima Rill J i0u S nt ,4 0r equality and first-class 

$o£ Tanta ft St &k5l«ft«^ *■ 
and president of the Illinois State^^p Jj£ ™ s W * e 
NAACP, accompanied the witness ^-^Sif S nfdhf?' f^t 

[to the FBI office where the Mfa-lSS thou S ht ^ e °?S ht *> Y° tG ^ 

[jsissippian told his story. 

Hudsoirsays that he was sitting 

like other Americans. Someone 

threatened him and told* him he 

nn'ATfcirr.n .™-«»« s , should withdraw his nai% from 

with a fajend when the Rev. Mr. the registration lists. He Mused 

Lees ear passed. He saw another^ do this because he w\s an 

tl Sri? >H ?* ei F ma » s and.American and Americans have the 
heard the shots fired from 1 the sec-Wht to vote * I 

ond car. Rev. Lee's car swerved.- ° 

_. off the road and crashed into a 

| hofase while the other disappear- 
ed 'Mn the darkness. \ 

ihe NAACP, Wilkins saidAis 
tracing other witnesses in the hope 
of securing the arrest and convict* 

%n it 

i MP 




'*-'-"-f'iin« ii 

" - JUN 3 1355 

■ ' ' / s 

This is a clipping from 
page / of the 

(-^Daily Worker 

The Worker 

New Leader 

MAY 3 1 1955 


Clipped at the Seat of 






Americans have become familiar 
wip. odd-sounding place names, 
p/i r o s h i m a, Okinawa, Seoul, 
Mamhung, Pyungyang and Pusau 
mve assumed an easy familiar- 
ity with us, along with Cher- 
bourg, Bonn, Frankfurt, Brus- 
selles, Bizerte, Anzio,. Bastogno 
and St. Vith-to mention only a 
few* And always in connection 
with these additions to our 
knowledge of geography goes 
the chauvinistic claim that Uncle 
Sam has been called upon to 
lead the world. Washington U 
viewed as the "World Capital of 
the Free World/ and our agents 
are sent around the globe as 
stewards of freedom against the, 
"Communist menace." 

Now for two weeks a new 
place name has flickered across 
the pages of our daily news- 
papers: a tiny hamlet in Mis- 
sissippi answering to the name 
of Belzoni , where some 4,071 
souk—more than 2,500 of them 
Negroes— make their homes. 

It is such ^ little-known place 
that the telephone operator in 
Memphis, Tennessee, in routing 
a long distance call to Belzoni, 
has to look it up in- the direc- 
tory. Yet Belzoni has arisen to 
challenge the conscience of 
America. It is closer to Wash- 
ington than Prague or Sophia 
or Saigon. An upright citizen 
of Belzoni should be presumed 
to be more important to the 
men who run the Capital of the 
"Free World* than say a Car- 
dinal Mindzenty and just as im- 
portant as, say, a United Press 
correspondent in Singapore, But 
how safe is such a presumption? 

Negro minister, is dead, killed 
on a Belzoni street on May 7, 
1955, a few days after he had 
refused orders to tear up his 
poll tax and remove his name 
from the Humphreys County 
voters list. Before his death his 
friend Gus Courts, a Negro 
grocer, had been forced out of 
business because white whole- 
salers, organized in the White 
Citizens Councils, had refused 
to deliver orders to his store. 
And after his death the uder- 
Met who handled Rev. Lees 
bn%— T* V. Johnson— the only 
Negjj) undertaker in Belzoni— 
has Been put on the White Citf- 



On the 

by Aimer W. Berry 

Wfeat Bo Yom Know 
Aliont Beirut? 

zens Councils' boycott list John* 
son, like Rev. Lee, believes that 
Negroes are American citizens 
and should vote in elections, and 
besides he is an NAACP mem- 

The simple forms of democ? 
racy are completely absent in 
Humphrey County and in Bel- 
zoni, the county seat Ebr al- 
though the county's 23,115 pop-, 
ulation has a majority' of Ne- 
groes, Rev. Lee was the first 
Negro ever to register to yote 
there.. Consider that in 1918 
when Humphreys County was 
carved out of the rambling Delta 
county of Yazoo, there were 18,- 
000 Negroes in a population o£ 
24,000. Despite the existence of 
the 13th, 14th and 15th Amend- 
ments to the Constitution, the 
Negroes of Humphreys County 
were as devoid of rights as any 
black South African about whose 
plight so many good Americans 
cluck their tongues and shake 
their heads in frustration. 

It took a violent death of a 
Negro minister to dramatize this 
ugly relic of human slavery for 
us. Up to now we could say we 
didn't know. We could slough 
it off as a southern problem 
which would*- work itself out 
We could even forget about it 
by citing all the "progress" we've 
made in race relations. 

In 37 years and an undeter- 
mined number of unreported 
deaths one Negro out of 18,000 
finally got his name on the vot- 
ing lists of an American county 
in the American state of Mis- 
sissippi. And he was killed for 
his devotion to democracy, for 
his fight for a truly free world. 
1 have not heard any eulogies 
for Rev. Lee in Congress, al- 
though Rep. Adam CyPowell 
was permitted to si^ik out of 
order iu eulogizing a United 
Press correspondent who was 

killed in Singapore. There is a 
silence in most of the press, for 
they^ see in this not a challenge 
to "free world" concepts, but 
an embarrassment 

THE FEDERAL government 
winch has at its disposal hun- 
dreds of millions of dollars to 
conduct espionage and so-call^ 
"underground railroads" in Eu- 
rope has done only the most 
perfunctory laboratory analysis 
of pellets found in Rev. Lee's 
body. No government official 
has denounced in angry tones 
this blackout of freedom exposed 
by the murder of Rev. Lee. And 
U.S. Attorney General Herbert 
Brownell, in the face of the 
continuing force and violence 
and the threats of violence is 
apparently riding out the storm 
or protest being stirred by the 
NAACP and the leaders in Mis- 
sissippi. A conspiracy to de- 
prive Negro citizens of their con- 
stitutional rights — even their 


r The government leaders, it 
seems, are too absorbed in the 
problems of "freedom," nsJmey 
see them everywhere else^m the 
world-except in Belzoni, Mis- 
sissippi. But if we follow them 
in this absorption we will be 
losing our own freedom by de- 
fault. For there are hundreds of 
Belzoni's. And these Belzonis 
are powers in the federal gov- 

Perhaps, if we shout loudly 
enough about Belzoni, the new 
place name in the fight for free- 
dom, we can attract the atten- 
tion of the men in Washington; 
we may be able to end their 
preoccupation with more d i s- 
tant places with more exotic 
names and turn them to Bel^cfff.* 

ouiuiiuutti. zi£ui5 — even rneir "tunes Him turn incm 10 BGtg&nu 
lives— goes its own brutal, urf^T^f sta ^ e * n freedom liee^iri that 
American way. ' direction. 




126 JUN 6 1955 

This is a clipping from 
page < f of the 

^(^TDaily Worker 
A ) The Worker 
( ) New Leader 

Date m 2 6 1955 
piipped at the Seat of A ' 


Go^nnAnt.\ ( 



\\\ ! J 


7 m.-v 




An important witness in 
Bezoai, Miss., Negro minister, 
in the Pittsburgh. Courier, Hie 
seems, knew too much about the' 
circumstances surrounding the! 
happening on last May 7 when 1 
Rev. Lee was TimbushetJ by threq 
men who shot into his* face and! 
neck three times. Rev, Lee at! 
the time was driving his car which! 
crashed into a .home after the^ 
shots. * A few days before hisj 
death Ee^Lee had refused orders^ 
from the—White €iti zens...Coun cik> 
Humpnrey County to remove 
his name from the voters list. He 1 
was one of 92 Negroes who had 
stood up for their rights as voters. 

Sheriff L J. Sheldon denied any 1 
knowledge of the intimidation of 
Miss White. 

"What witness?" he asked when 
question. "We know of no wit- 
ness disappearing/* 

With pressure for the arrest of 
Bev. ILces murderer mounting in 
Mississippi and slowly building up 
throughout the country, Sheriff 
Sheldon has begun to relent some- 1 
what in his indifferent attitude. 
He told a questioner; 

'We're pressing a search for 
Lee's murderer and knitting evi- 
dence together all the time." 

This was the clearest admission 
from the sheriff that the militant 
minister hud been murdered. It is 
still not clear whether or not he 
■wilkseek to pin Rev. Lee*s death on 
a NWo as Sheldon has intimated 
from*\thne to time when he^has 
been pressed for action. In fact, 
most v£ the arrests he had made 
so for have been of: Negro suspects. 

tlae case of the murder of Rev. George W, Lee, 51-yel*-old 
has been ordered out of town, it was reported yestdtday 
witness, substitute school teacher Miss Gzelia Wliitfe, it 

YflJUN. 3 195S 





UMIa issi 

This is a clipping from 
P a S e 3 of the 

(-)^Daily Worker 
( ) The Worker 
( ) New Leader 

MAY 2 6 195>s 

Date _ 

Clipped at the Seat of 

5 U'W 

" N * fi 








' THE WHITE SUPREMACY officials of the ffagno- 
p State of Mississippi, so hated the Supreme Coi/k and 
looked with such contempt upon the law of the liid that I 
they refused to discuss the issue with the high court last \ 
April when invited to. do so. j 

Now the extra-legal *1Vhite Citizens Councils have 1 
spoken with %, lynchers 'gSSSTTT^egro minister, the i 
Rev. ^orgej^tfcee^ of Belzoni, is their dead and mutt- f 
lated victim. Other Negro citizens of Belzoni, Mississippi, j 
have had their automobile windshields smashed; Negro [ 
businessmen have been forced out of business by econom- i 
ic boycott And as yet the white supremacy conspiracy is [ INDEXED - ICd 
unchallenged by federal authorities. . 1 

INDEED, statements by President Eisenhower and 
the legal brief and arguments by U.S. Attorney General 
Herbert Brownell and Solicitor General Simon E, Sobel- 
off in the school case have tended to side with the Dixie- 
crat point of view*, the President, in answer to a recent 
letter from Hep. Herbert Zelenko (D-NY), opposed en- 
forcement legislation supporting the Supreme Court's an- 
ti-segregation ruling* 

Meanwhile the offer of the chairman of -the Demo- 
cratic Party's national committee tq forgive-and-forget 
the Dixiecrat crimes against the party still further remov- 
ed political restraint from the Deep South racist leaders. 
The mangled body of .Rev. Lee is a mute and tragic chal- 
lenge to -.this bi-partisan wooing of the Dixiecrats. 

Rev. Lee was lulled-as everyone, except Brownell 
and the FBI seems to know-because he so sought to ex- 
ercise the federally-guaranteed right' tq vote. He refused 
to tear up his poll tax receipt, as the kluxers had ordered. 
There is evidence to support this. There is too much evi- 
dence pointing to the violation of constitutional rights in 
the murder of Rev. Lee for the Department of Justice to 
leave the investigation of the affair to local authorities. 

This is not just a question of prosecuting those guilty 
in the death of Rev. Lee, it is a question of protecting Bel- 
zoni's Negro citizens against the continuous flaunting of 
their rights. 

"\This case merits the attention of the President, him- 
self/'W Rev. Lee's death results from a political movement 





76JUN 3 1955 

This is a clipping from 
page _j£. of the 

(^TJaily Worker 
( ) The Worker 
( ) New Leader 

Date jr -<ZS~^-zr . 

Clipped at the Seat of \ ' 
Government, vV 

*' ^ * *\ 

M V ' "* 




rge Negro 
inister Slain 

For Voting l 

BELZONI* Miss., May 18,-Au- 
thorities began today a belated in- 
vestigation into a gang-style assas- 
sination of a Negro minister, after 
the National Association for the 
Advancement of Colored People, 
charged the killing to white su- 
premacist "Citizen Councils/' 

Rev, George W. Lee, 51, was 
fatally wounded by the blasts from 
a gun May 8, as he drove his car 
in a Belzoni street The car then 
crashed into a house. 

City officials and authorities of 
Humphries County, of which Bel- 
zoni is the county seat, had taken 
for granted that Rev. Lee's death 
was due to the crash. But metal 
objects imbeclded in the skin 
man's body and powder bums on 
his skin refute this claim, 

Mrs, Ruby Hurley, regional sec 
retary of the NAACP, said in Bir- 
mingham, Ala. 

aJThe Rev. Lee was killed. He 
wasltettvg in the NAACP and was 
one of the few" Negroes who 
) istered to vote. He was told hy\ 

i) JUN #>■'&&& 

the \Vhite Citizens Council to re 
move his name from the voting 
list" ] 

Acorlling to Mrs. Hurley, the 
jNAACJjl legal department isjjinde- 
[penden'tly investigating RevJ Lee's 
death. , J 

In Washington, the Justice De- 
partment said the FBI was inves- 
tigating to determine whether any 
federal civil rights laws have been 

*£he Mississippi NAACP charged 
the~W hite Citizens Councils with 
placing Rev. Lees name on its 
'^black list" because he was active 
in a drive to register Negroes in 
Humphries County. The councils, 
composed of leading white busi- 
nessmen, were known to have 
passed among themselves such a 
list of Negro leaders who were, to 
become targets for economic boy- 
cott. * When the economic boycott, 
which forced a Negro grocer from 
a rented building and stopped 
loans to others, failed to stop the 
drive for the vote, direct action 
against Negroes began. 

Belzoni Negro residents tell of 
cars of * whites speeding through 
the heavily populated Negro sec- 
tion <of this Delta region town while 
occupants of the cars toss rocks 
through windows and smash wind- 
shields of parked cars. 

Dr. A. H. McCoy, president of 
the Mississippi State NAACP con- 
ference, said of Rev. J,ee r s defiance 
of the White Citizens Councils: 

"The Rev. Mr. Lee was one of 
the first Negroes to qualify for vot- 
ing in Humphries County. He was 
a leader helping his people to live 
the Christian life. He was a man 
who believed in and advocated 
living by the principles of demo- 
cratic government. 

"In face of previous threats and 
intimidatioas, he refused to follow ' 
oroders (of the Citizens Councils) 
to tear tip his poll tax receipt and 
have his name remoVs^jrom the 
registration book . •* « beclfcstfe he 
cffbved in our republican form of 
* government* 

A- -/Li //■., 


This is a clipping from 
page _</ of the 


Daily Worker 
The Worker 
New Leader 

KAY 1 9 1955 


Clipped at the Sea\ of 
Government.** *^ 


1 if 

6 2 APR 20 1955 

U.S. Probe of 

Attorney ■ General Bro\( T 
has been asked by the Washr , 
ton Annual donference of ^ e 
African Methodist Episc^ 
Church to "Investigate the OSV" , 
zens' Councils, Southern Gentle- 1 
men, 'fand other similar groups 1 
whose announced purpose is to i 
thwart the march of Negro i 
Americans to full freedom." | 
The conference telegraphed 
Mi*. Brownell yesterday after f 
unanimously approving a motion, 
to have the groups investigated 
to see if they are in violation 
of the subversion or civil rights 

"It is our feeling that these 
activities constitute subversion 
and un-Americanism on a par 
with the Klu Klux Klan and the 
Communist Party and are a : 
threat to the civil liberties of j 
all Americans, " the telegram! 

The telegraift was signed by^ 
Bishop p. Ward%ichols, presid- 
ing at the conference, which will 
end tomorrow in, the Turner 


Church, Sixth and I 




,, , BoardmanZ^^Z/'' 
*""' Mr. Nichols jSlg> 
Mr, Belmont uiQ$*L. 
Mr. Harbo " 

Mr; Mohr 

Mr. Parsons 

Mr. Rosen 

Mr. Tamm 

Mr. Sizoo 

Mr. Winterrowd . 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Hollonran _ 
Miss Gandy p> 




- M*~ 





1 /r /; 

NO" 1 RE n O*J)ED 
291 APR 18 1955 

Wash, Post and 

Times Herald 

Wash. News <± ^ 

Wash. Star / " '/ 

N. Y. Herald Tribune 

N. Y. Mirror 




T^Soon To Criticize 


*" Smith's Citizens Councils say they are peaceful unite* 

lit fact the various councils have recently issued an inri* 
tation to FBI boss J, Edgar Hoover to join them in main- 
taining segregation in Southern states* 

h The invitation was in reply to a magazine article by Green- 
ville* Miss., editor Hodding Carter calling the council a! 
modem day version of the Ku KIux Klan. \ 

Said the executive committee of the council: "If any FBI 
members desire to attend our meetings* we will welcome 
their attendance. If they desire to join our organization, we 
will be glad to have them as members, and this invitation 
includes the Honorable J, Edgar Hoover." 

In issuing the invitation, the council said its intent is to ' 
maintain segregation by lawful means* 

Carter, editor-publisher of the Delta Democrat, charged 
the council has all the ingredients necessary to produce fu- 
ture violence once peaceful methods fail them. 

Now that is a general statement if there* ever, was one, 
for any man, woman or child who has a pair of fists, or a 
man-made weapon of any kind, and who becomes angry, has 
all the necessary ingredients to produce violence, 

And, the persons may not even know of segregation. 

We are not upholding the Citizens Councils, and if these 
groups should turn to violence, we shall blast them, ' 
j But: It is entirely possible that the council, as such, has 
\he full intent of using peaceful methods. n 

* And: They cannot be criticized for using mefe words/" 
J Let's ju3t say that it is too early to pass judgtfnent. 


Mr. Tolson- 

Mr. Board 

Mr. Nich 

Mr. BehS 

Mr. Harba 
! Mr. Mcjsr. 
5 Mr. Pi 
: Mr. E£ 
; Mr, 

i Jlr. Sizoo. 
. Hr. Winterrowd- 
j *Me. Boom — yU 

*\\j J 


% i/M« 




}X <ij (f 

"james skewes,, editor 
ithe meridian star 
Imeridian, miss.. 

IP age 6 Col. 1 . 

♦laAPfi 101955! 





i38 APK.15 1955 

V"H "» 'g g . W" 




To Be Member 
Of 'Citizens' 

WINONA, Miss,, (UP)-The gov 
erwng body of white citizens nil 
eils, an organizi 

SPPIy "economic pressures" to pre- 
v »nt desegregation, today offered 

Rations to FBI director tVw 1 
!* Hoover .to join the organL 

„J he .. executive committee""!!/ 
councils issued a statement deny- 
ing Mississippi Editor Hnrfrfl. 

r ■■Nil 
t .««rnwa-co„„ v;lJH were Dej 

t? W- ed by P ^ e FBI '« PoSwI 
Jplations of civil rights. ' 

ft Carter, editor of (he ' Greenvill > 
l^T^ Times ' accuse <» tht. 
l|KIu U x P Kla°ns being m ° d6rn day Ku 

ILZ/'F FBI "l^bws desire to 

J attend our meetings," the execu, 

I two committee said, "we will wel- 

[come them. If they desire to Toll 

, our organization we will be glad 

to have fhem as members and this 

includes the honoraole J. Edgar 

Hoover." ^"s«u 

a council member, said his organil 

'fori*? ° f l ]i gl i m nded "wn'who 
£ee| the need for leadership , 
gctom m the social and econoi 
problems of our state." 
^Councils are dedicated to "bet- ! 

30tn fnr iha Mo,»b. i ._,_„. 

Mr. Tolson*^ /f 





wot recorded 

138 APR 15 1955 


CITIZENS councils 


Pare 10B Col. 3 


JUKI ho 




. Tolsou 


0.20 H 

• Boardm^ft : 

!' Kit I mm* ?&&./• 

Mrl Belmont 
Mr, Harbo 
Mr. Mohr . 


Mr. Parsons^* 

Mr. Roseivv^tZl 

Mr. Tamm 
Mr. Sizoo , 

Mr. Winterrowd 

Tele. Room 

Mr. Holloman 

Miss Gandy 

tTfiESfEA3£ AT At Oft PM EST 5 ^fec^. — - >*— — - * 






3/T— W0404P 


fr \t-fl 

, 2 



126 MAR 211955 

fl BAR 211955 





Racists Try To Tighten Financial 
Noose Around Mississippi Negroes 


MANY MISSISSIPPIANS are now getting their first-hand knowledge of the eco- 
nomics of segregation. Both those for and against segregated schools, and bo t h colored 
and white, are feeling or soon will f eel the burden of trying to maintain the old system 

outlawed by the Supreme Court — - 

decision of May 17. 

On Negroes the burden fell sud- 
denly, in the form of a refusal of 
credit from banks, mortgage com- 
panies, and ■ loan agencies* The 
NAACP reported that homeowners, 
businessmen, and farmers were 
turned down on loan and credit 
applications, if they were known 
either to favor integrated schools, 
or to have attempted .to register 
and vote, or had a reputation as 

Small businessmen are being 
asked for cash on delivery of 
goods, it was learned, flanks are 

those affected by securing loans 
through the Negro - owned Tri- 
State Bank of Memphis, Tenn. A 
national appeal .to swell the re- 
sources of the bank by transferring 
deposits there has resulted in se- 
curing about $150,000 in new 

Latest depositors include two 
labor unions — the United Auto 
Workers, and the Brotherhood of 
Sleeping Car Porters, each of 
whom deposited $10^000 for the 
loan fund* Other institutions who 
haye contributed similar sums in- 
clude Negro insurance and fra- 

refusing to refinance farm mort- ternal organizations, the African 
gages or to advance money need- Methodist Episcopal Church, and 

ed to start a new crop. Negro pro- 
fessional men are on a 'COD. basis 
. for supplies, and some are having 
insurance cancelled* Big, white 
plantation owners are forbidding 
their Negro tenants to go to Ne- 
gro doctors, 



Mississippians appealed for as- 
sistance' to the NAACP which 
evolved it plan of assistance to 

the NAACP. A" few individuals 
have made smaller contributions, 

An investigation of one phase of 
the "squeeze" is said to be m the 
hands of the Agriculture Depart- 
ment Affidavits from Mississippi 
accusing two officials of the Farm- 
ers Home Administration of deny- 
ing government loans to Negro 
applicants were referred by the 
White House to Secretary Ezra 

THE PROBLEM facing white 
voters arises from the passage of 
the state constitutional amend- 
ment in December authorizing the 
legislature to abolish public 
schools. The proposal, officially 
sponsored by the Governor, was 
designed to go into effect only if 
Negroes refuse to accept "volun- 
tary segregation/* 

In an effort to make segregated 
schools, more palatable to Negroes, 
education officials have recom- 
mended a program of "equalizing 
Negro schools. The problem, how- 
ever, is to raise the money requir- 
ed for this stupendous undertak- 
ing, a sum estimated by the state 
at $88,000,000 for a two year pro- 

Thus far, no one has come up! 
with the answer of where the ad-j 
ditibnal tax money will come from 
—for the present school budget is i 
far below this sum. Even anti- in-! 
tegration forces in the state ad-J 
mit that Negro schools have been" 
severely curtailed in funds, andj 
would not be in condition to play] 
a part in an integrated school sys*j 



Q 6 ? MAR4 1955 

not nzcofrf^' 

m M/\R 3 1955 

This is a clipping from 
P a e e — £_ of the 

( )Haily Worker 
(i^The Worker 
( ) New Leader 

Date SL/jt 7/f£ I 

Clipped at the Seat of \ 
Government. \ u Jf\ 

\VA V 












Affidavits from Mississippi leaders of the NAACP accusing representatives of fed- 
eral financing agencies of discriminatory practices in collaboration with the economic pres- 
sure movement of the Wlixte'Citizens Councils of Mississippi have been submitted to the 

White House with an urgent xe- —~~ ~" - v ' •>- - M * m -,-,-, T ^,„- . w,,„ , : — : 

quest for "prompt action. 9 ' 

Walter JE. Strider and S. O'Neal, 
agents of the Farmers Home Ad- 
ministration of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture in Lexington, 
Miss., are named as persons deny- 
ing Negro applicants assistance to 
which they are entitled. 

Roy Wilkins, NAACP adminis- 
trator, submitted the affidavits. 

"Because, of my activities in 
bringing in about 25 members ia 
the NAACP branch," a fanner as- 
sert? in his affidavit, "economic 
pressure is being exerted on me/' 
Owner oi 73 acres of "rich Mis- 
sissippi Melta soil" with a seven- 
4'oom house, a barn and a tractor, 
this Njfgro farmer says that al« 

M^w,^h^t. dry &h 

m^FE8 3 1955 

though his tract produces as much 
as a bale-and-a-half of cotton per 
acre he is unable to get loans for 

Because of drought and the de- 
mand for immediate payment of a 
$3,500 mortgage, he is in danger 
of losing his place, "Anyone be- 
longing to the NAACP," he affirms, 
is not deemed "worthy of financial 
assistance and is termed a trouble- 
maker in the community/* 

Another victim afBrms that he 
•has been unable to secure such a 
ban "because a Mr. S* O'Neal or 
Lexington, Miss, (farm home man-* 
ager) thought that I shoudl not 
have it/' 

A woman farm owner in the 
same 'drought-stricken area also 
comdains that O'Neal and Strider 
denied her a disaster loan tapper- 
ate per farm during 1955. ^It is 
generally believed," she adds, * mat 
Mr. Strider refuses some loans to 

NAACP members because of local 

Last year, a local NAACP leader 
swears, he secured without diffi- 
culty an operational loan from the 
FHA. "But this year, I have been 
unsuccessful in getting anty con- 
sideration for a loan to iperate 
my farm/' he asserts, raming 
O'Neal as the one- who rejecjed his 

This is a clipping from 
page Jr of the 

(*^5ai]y Worker 
( ) The Worker 
( ) New Leader 

Date &-- J-J*3' 

Clipped at the Seat of 

Government o 

Sy S: — 









1 / •£ :'• 


/ On the 

7 W^ y 

by* Abner W. Berry 

A Strategy for 
Tin* Racist Boycott 

THE 195S "WHITE collar" 
edition of the Ku Klux^Klan 
now operating in/Mississippi and 
spilling over into other southern 
states, is not composed of crack- 
pots* They are hard-headed busi- 
nessmen whose investments 
have been protected by jimcrow. 
They are showing their contempt 
of the XL S. Supreme Court and 
the "U. S. government because 
the May 17 ruling against se- 
gregated schools hits indirectly 
at tXeir investments. For, despite 
eve/ything that Mx. Gallup, the 
i popster, and others may say 
about how much the nation 
loses because of jimcrow, that 
ugly bird has brought good for- 
tunes to most southern industries* 
By keeping the Negro out of 
the general labor market the 
plantation owners, initiators of 
the old Klan, maintained a host 
! of almost free laborers. And in 
this reserve pool the city indus- 
t trialist of the South, had a weap- 
on for pressing sweat shop condV« 
tions upon the white workers. 
Jimcrow kept the unions weak 
when they existed at all. 

Note well that the Mississippi 
"Citizens Councils/* as the anti- 
Supreme Court Klansman call 
their movement, have not mov- 
ed to fire Negro workers. Nor 
have they threatened to expel 
their farm workers. The targets 
of the current economic attacks 
have been Negro business and* 
professional men. One reason is 
that they are the most articulate; 
the/ are not too numerous; and 
in/most cases they sell con\- 
n/dities£*r >&rvfc&fjb Ife&pi 
Which «tt'(4W«l r^ 
and performed by whites. 


ers recruited as NAACP mem- man. These represent such a 
bers, the ability to apply «**> • \ M t m ll segment of the NeflBraMoom- 
nomic pressure would be on the jnumity. Their leadership TSfiajpt 
other loot. I will never forget endure to the full success dr the 

The neo-KIuxers are as mad 
as foxes, then, when they hit at 
a competitor and the "menace* 
of de-segregation with one blow. 
The leadership of the National 
Association for the Advancement 
of Colored People has moved to 
assist the embattled Negroes 
faced with the loss of homes, 
businesses and professional prac- 
tice. This plight, if the reader 
has not already learned, resulted 
from banks withdrawing credit, 
foreclosing mortgages and from 
some white businessmen con- 
ducting a boycott of Negroes 
Who refuse to support segrega- 

It was announced about a 
week ago that $20,000 was de- 
posited by the NAACP with the 
Negro-owned Tri-State Bank of 
Memphis, as part of a plan to 
expand the bank's assets by 
$250,000. As an ^emergency 
measure, this is good, but this is 
only a stop-gap. Moreover, if 
there should be a spread of this 
conspiracy to ruin Negro citizens 
economically, the fight for free- 
dom could conceivably become 
a banking movement. 

one to question why it was so 
easy for the big time \vhite su- 
premacy advocates to pick' off 
NAACP leadership with an eco- 
nomic boycott in a state like 
Mississippi? It would seem to 
me to indicate a need to 
integrate the leadership of<|he 
group in that state with a lake 
\\ion of the million or moVe 

Jgro inhabitants who could n% 
je hit by such a boycott. Witn 
enough Negro workers and farm- 

how Beaumont, Texas, learned 
not to tolerate race riots during 
the war. Negro workers, on the 
day following the 1943 riot 
there, were afraid to go to work 
and the town barely limped that 
day. % 

Tia not calling for a Negro 
general strike, but I do know that 
the boss who hires a few hun- 
dred workers is dependent upon 
them, and that he is not going 
to try any such foolish action as 
withdrawing all their jobs. 
Where would his profits come 
from then? 

There is also the matter of the 

freedom movement if it is not 
re-inforced by the masses of 
Negroes in the factories and the 
fields. And when we get right 
down to it, what's wrong with 
integrating some of the latter 
class into NAACP leadership? 

I have not been at my desb 
enough during the fund drive* 
to acknowledge the many con* 
tributions which readers sent in. 
L.L., from Brooklyn, sent in 
$E>; A group of "North Carolini- 
ans" sent annther most welcome 
$5; "Old Timer" scored twice 
$10 bills; two "Detroit Friends- 
gave |5. And there are others to 

Mississippi trade unions whose^ be acknowledged next Tuesday, 
national bodies have declared in\Thanks and keep the fun\com- 
support of de-segregation. Some \g to fill out the remain^ iq 
of these unions have Negro and lucent that is missing at 
white members and exert no writing, 
little economic influence them- 

This boycott movement and 
other subversive attempts to de- 
tour around the Supreme Court 
ruling are likely to be with us 
for some time to come. And there ;. 
is going to be needed a strategy j 
which goes beyond the cfcctor, j 
the lawyer, the pharmacist the j 
teacher and the small business- 

This is a clipping from 
page S' of the 

(^T^Baily Wox-icer 
The Worker 
New Leader 


Date /- /3-*s~<r* 

; k* \ + a}J 

Clipped at thtp. Seat of 

a.. j < 


P 'JAN 141 1935